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TANZANIA - Exercise a high degree of caution
There is no nationwide advisory in effect for Tanzania. However, you should exercise a high degree of caution due to rising crime levels and the threat of terrorism.
Safety and security
Safety and security
Tensions remain in Zanzibar following the disputed elections held in October 2015 and in March 2016. Exercise caution; avoid demonstrations, political rallies and large gatherings; follow the instructions of local authorities; and monitor local media.
In recent years, Tanzania has seen a slight increase in sectarian violence between Christians and Muslims, including in places of worship. Take this information into consideration when planning your trip.
Regional terror groups, including those associated with al Qaeda and al-Shabaab, continue to threaten Western interests and other potential targets in Tanzania. The September 21, 2013 attack on an upscale Nairobi mall illustrates the threat of attacks on civilians in East Africa.
On February 23-24, 2014, three explosions were reported in Zanzibar. They occurred outside the Tanzania Assemblies of God Church, at the entrance of the Anglican Church compound and in a popular restaurant in Stone Town. Further attacks cannot be ruled out.
Explosions reportedly killed three people and injured many more at a political rally in Arusha on June 15, 2013. On April 13, 2014, an explosion in a bar in Arusha injured 15 people.
Be vigilant in crowded places and monitor local media.
Violent crime has increased throughout the country, both in the country and in main cities. Exercise a high degree of caution, especially in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar, and in public places such as hotels, restaurants, nightclubs, cinemas and shopping centres. Muggings, attacks and hold-ups occur occasionally in Dar es Salaam, Stone Town and in the immediate vicinity of the coastal resorts on Unguja. You should be vigilant, particularly in Stone Town after dark. Avoid deserted beaches.
In Dar es Salaam, particular caution is warranted on Toure Drive (Msasani Peninsula) where muggings and attacks, including attacks on moving vehicles, have recently been reported.
Petty crime is prevalent. Muggings, pickpocketing and theft are common in crowded areas, on public transportation and on public beaches.
Sexual assaults involving tourists have been reported.
An increasing number of Canadians have reported being taken to automated banking machines (ABMs) and forced to withdraw funds from their account after accepting a ride from a stranger, a local taxi or a recent acquaintance. Incidents are most often reported at ferry, bus and train terminals in Dar es Salaam. Use only licensed taxis selected by a reputable hotel or restaurant, or one located at an official taxi stand. Always ask for identification before accepting transportation and check that the driver's ID matches the name of the car registration and taxi license. Avoid taking a taxi that has been hailed for you by a recent acquaintance. Instead, hail your own taxi. A licensed taxi is a white car with a white (never yellow) license plate, a colored stripe running laterally on the side panels of the vehicle, and a number inside a circle on both passenger doors.
Armed robbery, although rare, can also occur in parks and nature reserves, including the northern circuit in the vicinity of Serengeti National Park, Ngogongoro and Arusha National Parks, and regions surrounding Mount Kilimanjaro. Organized tours and independent travellers have been targeted. You should only travel with a reputable tour company (hotels can make recommendations). Avoid camping or travelling alone.
Remain on tourist routes and avoid remote areas. Exercise caution in and around Arusha, where armed robberies and carjackings have been reported. Should you find yourself on less-travelled roads and trails, avoid stopping since armed robberies and carjackings may occur. Keep doors locked and windows up at all times and do not pick up strangers. Travel in a convoy between cities, and avoid travelling after dark.
Travel near refugee camps in the northwestern area bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Burundi (in the region of Kigoma and to the west of Kagera) is dangerous due to banditry.
Demonstrations occur and have the potential to suddenly turn violent. Avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings, follow the instructions of local authorities and monitor local media.
Be careful when going through Customs at airports, as officials have been known to solicit bribes. In a common scheme, an official will ask the visitor to produce a certificate of proof of inoculation against yellow fever, even though a yellow fever certificate is only required if arriving from a country where yellow fever is endemic. If such a scheme occurs, you may request to speak to a senior official. However, if this does not work, be patient and negotiate with the official.
You may be approached by police officers requesting money for alleged offences. We recommend that you insist on proper identification before proceeding to a police station. You may also inform the police officers that you will contact the High Commission for advice. This tends to dissuade them from soliciting bribes. Report all such incidents to the High Commission of Canada in Dar es Salaam.
Traffic drives on the left. Road conditions are poor and road signs are often missing. For travel outside main cities, use a four-wheel-drive vehicle. Excessive speeds, driving habits, poor lighting, lack of vehicle maintenance, roaming wildlife and livestock, cyclists and pedestrians pose risks. Travel by road at night should be avoided. Within cities, travel with licensed taxis and ask for identification. Avoid driving unless you are familiar with local conditions.
Bus travel is not recommended, as bus accidents often result in fatalities. Rail service is limited, uncomfortable, and unreliable.
Use only licensed taxis selected by a reputable hotel or restaurant, or one located at an official taxi stand (see Crime section above).
While there are regular ferries travelling between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar, Tanzania ports are often frequented by persuasive ticket scalpers. Passengers should only use reputable ferry companies, as two local ferries with foreign national passengers have capsized in 2012. If you believe a ferry to be overloaded or unsafe, refrain from boarding and make alternative travel arrangements. Vessels travelling between Zanzibar/Pemba, Tanga/Pemba and Mafia/Mainland Tanzania are reported to be less reliable and often overcrowded.
The Government of Canada does not assess foreign domestic airlines’ compliance with international aviation safety standards. See Foreign domestic airlines for more information.
Domestic flights may be subject to delays and cancellations.
Pirate attacks occur in coastal waters, and in some cases, further out at sea. Mariners should take appropriate precautions. For additional information, consult the Live Piracy Report published by the International Maritime Bureau.
General safety information
Leave personal belongings, including cash, passports and airline tickets, in a hotel safe or other secure location.
Avoid walking after dark. Do not accept food or drink from strangers as they may be drugged.
Seek local advice on the security situation prior to visiting beaches.
Tourist facilities are adequate in major cities but limited in remote areas, with the exception of principal game lodges and beach resorts.
Wild animals can be dangerous. When visiting parks or nature reserves, follow the advice and warnings of local tour guides.
If you are considering climbing Mount Kilimanjaro, carefully consider the inherent risks involved, primarily altitude sickness and hypothermia. It is important to investigate the numerous tour operators in order to find a reputable guide. Each year people are seriously injured or killed on the mountain and emergency assistance is severely limited.
Due to power shortages, power cuts may occur on a daily basis. Travellers should expect occasional disruptions in power, as not all businesses are equipped with a generator.
It is the sole prerogative of every country or territory to determine who is allowed to enter or exit. Canadian consular officials cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet entry or exit requirements. The following information has been obtained from the Tanzanian authorities and is subject to change at any time. The country- or territory-specific entry/exit requirements are provided on this page for information purposes only. While every effort is made to provide accurate information, information contained here is provided on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind, express or implied. The Government of Canada assumes no responsibility, and shall not be liable for any damages in connection to the information provided. It is your responsibility to check with the High Commission for the United Republic of Tanzania for up-to-date information.
Official (special and diplomatic) passport holders must consult the Official Travel page, as they may be subject to different entry requirements.
Canadians must present a passport to visit Tanzania, which must be valid for at least six months beyond the date of expected departure from that country. Prior to travelling, ask your transportation company about its requirements related to passport validity, which may be more stringent than the country's entry rules.
Temporary passport holders may be subject to different entry requirements. Check with diplomatic representatives for up-to-date information.
Tourist visa: Required
Business visa: Required
Student visa: Required
Work/volunteer visa: Required
Canadians must be in possession of a visa to visit Tanzania. Visas are available upon arrival, at a cost of USD 50. When you arrive, ensure that immigration officials validate your visa by stamping your passport or writing any required information in it. A tourist visa is valid for three months from the date of issue, and the duration of a stay cannot exceed three months. Moreover, some visas are valid for a period shorter than three months. Frequent visitors and business persons should request multiple-entry visas.
Verify that you abide by the terms and expiry date indicated on your visa. Substantial fines are levied on those who overstay the period allowed by their visitor visa or residence permit.
Children and travel
Children need special documentation to visit certain countries. See Children for more information.
See Health to obtain information on this country’s vaccination requirements.
Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Vaccines to Consider
You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.
Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread through contaminated food and water or contact with an infected person. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment, sharing needles, tattooing, acupuncture or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.
Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Get the flu shot.
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease and is common in most parts of the world. Be sure your measles vaccination is up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Rabies is a deadly illness spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from an infected animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).
Yellow Fever - Country Entry Requirements
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.
Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.
- There is low potential for yellow fever exposure in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
- Proof of vaccination is required if you are coming from or have transited through an airport of a country where yellow fever occurs.
- Vaccination may be recommended depending on your itinerary.
- There is currently a shortage of the yellow fever vaccine in Canada. It is important for travellers to contact a designated Yellow Fever Vaccination Centre well in advance of their trip to ensure that the vaccine is available.
- Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care provider.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites.
About Yellow Fever
Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres in Canada
* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
Food and Water-borne Diseases
Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.
In some areas in East Africa, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in East Africa. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
Cholera is a bacterial disease that is most often spread by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated. It causes diarrhea and in severe cases it can lead to dehydration and even death.
Most travellers are at very low risk. Travellers at higher risk include those visiting, working or living in areas with limited access to safe food, water and proper sanitation, or to areas where outbreaks are occurring. Travellers at higher risk should discuss with a health care provider the benefits of getting vaccinated.
Schistosomiasis can be spread to humans through freshwater sources contaminated by blood flukes (tiny worms). The eggs of the worms can cause stomach illnesses like diarrhea and cramps or urinary problems. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Avoid swimming in freshwater sources (lakes, rivers, ponds). There is no vaccine available for schistosomiasis.
- Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
- Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
- The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.
Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher for children, travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives or travelling for a long period of time. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should speak to a health care provider about vaccination.
Insects and Illness
In some areas in East Africa, certain insects carry and spread diseases like African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis (river blindness), Rift Valley fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever.
Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.
- Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.
- The risk of dengue is higher during the daytime, particularly at sunrise and sunset.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or medication that protects against dengue fever.
Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is caused by filariae (tiny worms) spread to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause a range of illnesses. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine available for lymphatic filariasis although drug treatments exist.
Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is an eye and skin disease caused by a parasite spread through the bite of an infected female blackfly. Onchocerciasis often leads to blindness if left untreated. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from blackfly bites, which are most common close to fast-flowing rivers and streams. There is no vaccine available for onchocerciasis although drug treatments exist.
- There is a risk of malaria in certain areas and/or during a certain time of year in this country.
- Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. There is no vaccine against malaria.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in enclosed air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider pre-treating clothing and travel gear with insecticides and sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet.
- Antimalarial medication may be recommended depending on your itinerary and the time of year you are travelling. See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss your options.
Animals and Illness
Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in East Africa, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
High risk activities include anything which puts you in contact with blood or body fluids, such as unprotected sex and exposure to unsterilized needles for medications or other substances (for example, steroids and drugs), tattooing, body-piercing or acupuncture.
Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.
For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.
Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.
High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.
Medical services and facilities
Medical facilities are limited and medicines are often unavailable, even in Dar es Salaam.
Medical evacuation may be necessary in the event of an accident or sickness.
Keep in Mind...
The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.
Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.
Laws and culture
Laws & culture
You are subject to local laws. See Arrest and detention for more information.
Alcohol is not sold in some parts of Zanzibar. Avoid consuming alcohol in those areas.
The use of non-prescription drugs is prohibited.
Penalties for drug-related offences can be severe.
Homosexual activity is illegal and is subject to significant penalty.
Possession of pornographic material is illegal.
The export of hunting “trophies” is strictly regulated. Contact the High Commission for the United Republic of Tanzania for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Photography of military installations is forbidden. Individuals have been detained and/or had their cameras and film confiscated for taking pictures of hospitals, schools, bridges, industrial sites and airports. Always ask permission before photographing individuals.
An International Driving Permit is required.
Dual citizenship is not legally recognized in Tanzania. If local authorities consider you a Tanzanian citizen, they may refuse to grant you access to Canadian consular services, thereby preventing Canadian consular officials from providing you with those services. You should always travel using your valid Canadian passport and present yourself as Canadian to foreign authorities at all times to minimize this risk. You may also need to carry and present a Tanzanian passport for legal reasons, for example to enter and exit the country (see Entry/exit requirements to determine passport requirements). Citizenship is determined solely by national laws, and the decision to recognize dual citizenship rests completely with the country in which you are located when seeking consular assistance. See Travelling as a dual citizen for more information.
During the lunar month of Ramadan (the ninth month of the Muslim calendar), use discretion when drinking, eating, and smoking in public between sunrise and sunset. In 2017, Ramadan is expected to begin on or around May 27.
In Zanzibar, Islamic practices and beliefs are particularly influential. Exercise common sense and discretion in dress and behaviour throughout Tanzania. Respect religious and social traditions to avoid offending local sensitivities. Visitors should dress conservatively. Women should cover their shoulders and refrain from wearing shorts.
The currency is the Tanzanian shilling (TZS). The use of credit cards is very limited. However, they are generally accepted at larger hotels, European carriers and other businesses that cater to international clientele. There may be an additional fee of up to 5% when using credit cards.
Outside of Dar es Salaam and at smaller establishments, cash in either Tanzanian shillings or U.S. dollars is the preferred method of payment, particularly for hotel bills, domestic airline tickets and entry to national parks. Canadian dollar traveller’s cheques are not accepted. Automated banking machines (ABMs) are becoming more widely available, although only in main cities, and some can be used to access Canadian bank accounts; however, they are subject to breakdowns. We recommend that you carry a small supply of cash in U.S. dollars for use in airports and at borders.
Natural disasters and climate
Natural disasters & climate
Coastal areas and islands are subject to monsoons between June and October. In most areas, the long rainy season occurs from March to May and short rains last from November to December. Roads may be impassable during the rainy season without the use of a four-wheel-drive vehicle. Keep informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly.
Dial 112 for emergency assistance.
Dar Es Salaam - High Commission of Canada
For emergency consular assistance, call the High Commission in Dar Es Salam and follow the instructions. At any time, you may also contact the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa.
The decision to travel is your choice and you are responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice to enable you to make well-informed decisions regarding your travel abroad. In the event of a large-scale emergency, every effort will be made to provide assistance. However, there may be constraints that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide services.
See Large-scale emergencies abroad for more information.
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