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Nepal - Exercise a high degree of caution
Exercise a high degree of caution in Nepal due to the fragile political and security situation.
Safety and security
Safety and security
Petty theft is common, particularly near tourist sites, on buses and in hotel rooms.
Take particular care when walking around Kupandol, Sanepa and Thamel, popular tourist spots in Kathmandu, where pickpocketing is common.
- Do not leave personal belongings unattended. Armed robberies, particularly of solo trekkers, occur occasionally
- Exercise caution in and around Kathmandu and other cities
- Do not travel after dark
There is a significant increase in crime, including thefts, purse and bag snatchings, pickpocketing and break-ins, during the festival season, which extends from September to November. Maintain a high level of personal security awareness and ensure that your personal belongings and your passports are secure.
Women are vulnerable to harassment and verbal abuse. Dress conservatively, particularly in remote areas.
Female tourists travelling alone are more at risk of violent attacks.
Political protests are common in Nepal and sometimes result in violence. Transport and public services may be disrupted at short notice.
Politically motivated protests have been particularly volatile in Kathmandu as well as in Nepal’s southern region bordering India, which has at times resulted in supply shortages and affected border crossings.
Even peaceful demonstrations can turn violent at any time. They can also lead to disruptions to traffic and public transportation.
- Avoid areas where demonstrations and large gatherings are taking place
- Follow the instructions of local authorities
- Monitor local media for information on ongoing demonstrations
General strikes (locally referred to as bandhs) are a popular form of political expression and can occur on short notice throughout the country. Such strike action can affect access to services. While bandhs are usually peaceful, riots and violence are possible. During a bandh, businesses and roads may close and transportation services may be unavailable or severely disrupted.
Avoid travelling on public transportation during or immediately preceding bandhs, as tourists have been injured. Transportation to and from airports throughout Nepal could be affected. Army and police checkpoints are frequent, especially at night.
Follow the advice of local authorities and respect curfews and roadblocks.
Exercise caution when travelling by road as road conditions and driving standards are poor and traffic laws are not enforced.
Drivers often drive at excessive speed and often do not yield right-of-way to pedestrians.
Many mountain and hill roads, which can be hazardous even in the best weather, are intermittently impassable during the monsoon season due to landslides.
Traffic is congested in the Kathmandu Valley.
Most public buses are often poorly maintained and accidents involving buses, often causing injuries and fatalities, are common.
Avoid travelling on overnight buses.
Tourist buses are generally safe.
Boat accidents are common due to the overloading and poor maintenance of vessels. Do not board vessels that appear overloaded or unfit, especially where there are strong currents.
We do not make assessments on the compliance of foreign domestic airlines with international safety standards.
Trekking and mountain climbing
Emergency services such as evacuations and rescues from remote areas are available but can be hindered by:
- the lack of immediate payment to helicopter rescue services
- a positive response from clients of their insurance companies
- limited access to regular phone service in many trekking areas
There have been helicopter rescue scams in the past. Ensure that you are dealing with reputable helicopter companies. Check with your trekking agency for updates on the security situation in the area.
If you intend to trek:
- never do so alone and always hire an experienced guide from a reputable company
- buy travel insurance that includes helicopter rescue and medical evacuation
- ensure that your physical condition is good enough to meet the challenges of your activity
- ensure that you’re properly equipped and well informed about weather and other conditions that may pose a hazard
- inform a family member or friend of your itinerary, including when you expect to be back to camp
- know the symptoms of acute altitude sickness, which can be fatal
- obtain detailed information on trekking routes or ski slopes before setting out and do not venture off marked trails or slopes
Trekkers’ Information Management System
All trekkers must purchase a trekkers’ information management system (TIMS) card from one of the following entities:
National park permit
You must obtain a national park entry permit before entering official trekking regions or routes such as those in the Annapurna, Everest and Langtang regions.
Permits may be obtained from the national tourism board after arrival in Kathmandu or Pokhara.
More about trekking permits - Trekking Agencies’ Association of Nepal
A number of hikers and guides have been stranded, injured or killed while trekking.
Many popular trekking trails ascend higher than 5,500 metres. You may experience acute mountain sickness at high altitudes and should be well informed on possible hazards in the high mountains.
Drops in temperature and changes in weather conditions, including blizzards and avalanches can occur suddenly in mountainous regions at any time of year.
Keep informed of regional weather forecasts, be prepared for varying weather conditions, avoid disaster areas and follow the advice of local authorities.
If heading to the high country, make sure you are well informed on trail conditions and possible hazards.
Organize white-water rafting excursions through reputable agencies only.
Due to an energy shortage, electric power cuts, termed “load shedding,” are a year-round occurrence. They occur frequently for short periods and without advance notice.
Landmines and unexploded ordnance constitute a risk in parts of the country, including in some trekking areas. Follow the advice of local authorities, and only travel on well-used roads and paths.
Every country or territory decides who can enter or exit through its borders. The Government of Canada cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet your destination’s entry or exit requirements.
We have obtained the information on this page from the Nepalese authorities. It can, however, change at any time.
Verify this information with foreign diplomatic missions and consulates in Canada.
Entry requirements vary depending on the type of passport you use for travel.
Before you travel, check with your transportation company about passport requirements. Its rules on passport validity may be more stringent than the country’s entry rules.
Regular Canadian passport
Your passport must be valid for at least 6 months beyond the date you expect to leave Nepal.
Passport for official travel
Different entry rules may apply.
Other travel documents
Different entry rules may apply when travelling with a temporary passport or an emergency travel document. Before you leave, check with the closest diplomatic mission for your destination.
Tourist visa: Required (valid for up to 60 days)
Business visa: Required (only issued in Nepal)
Student visa: Required
Canadians must have a visa to visit Nepal.
You can purchase a tourist visa at:
- a Nepalese embassy or consulate
- the Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu
- some border crossings, upon arrival
You will need to supply a recent passport-size photo. Ensure that you have the necessary amount of funds (Canadian and U.S. dollars are accepted) with you if you wish to obtain a visa upon arrival. Check with the closest Nepalese embassy or consulate for the latest visa fees.
Overstaying your visa is an offence and immigration authorities can detain you until you pay a fine. In addition to fines and detention, overstays can result in a 7-year ban on re-entry.
Travel to Tibet
If you intend to travel to Tibet from Nepal, contact the Chinese embassy in Kathmandu for current entry regulations and consult the Travel Advice and Advisories for China.
Children and travel
Learn about travel with children.
Learn about potential entry requirements related to yellow fever (vaccines section).
- There are no updates at this time.
Be sure that your routine vaccines, as per your province or territory, are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Some of these vaccines include: measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, varicella (chickenpox), influenza and others.
Vaccines to Consider
You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health professional about which ones are right for you.
Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread through contaminated food and water or contact with an infected person. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment, sharing needles, tattooing, acupuncture or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.
Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Get the flu shot.
Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection that can cause swelling of the brain. It is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Risk is low for most travellers. Vaccination should be considered for those who may be exposed to mosquito bites (e.g., spending a large amount of time outdoors) while travelling in regions with risk of Japanese encephalitis.
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease and is common in most parts of the world.
Be sure your measles vaccination is up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Rabies is a deadly illness spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from an infected animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).
Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Travellers going to countries in South Asia should speak to a health care professional about getting vaccinated.
Yellow Fever - Country Entry Requirements
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.
Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.
- There is no risk of yellow fever in this country.
Country Entry Requirement*
- Proof of vaccination is required if you are coming from or have transited through an airport of a country where yellow fever occurs.
- Vaccination is not recommended.
- Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care professional.
- There is currently a shortage of the yellow fever vaccine in Canada. It is important for travellers to contact a designated Yellow Fever Vaccination Centre well in advance of their trip to ensure that the vaccine is available.
About Yellow Fever
Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres in Canada
* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.
Food and Water-borne Diseases
Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.
In some areas in South Asia, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in South Asia. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
- Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
- Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
- The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.
Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among pediatric travellers, travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives or travelling for a long period of time. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should speak to a health care professional about vaccination.
Insects and Illness
In some areas in South Asia, certain insects carry and spread diseases like chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and malaria.
Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.
There is currently a risk of chikungunya in this country. Chikungunya is a virus spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Chikungunya can cause a viral disease that typically causes fever and pain in the joints. In some cases, the joint pain can be severe and last for months or years.
Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all times. There is no vaccine available for chikungunya.
- Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.
- The risk of dengue is higher during the daytime, particularly at sunrise and sunset.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or medication that protects against dengue fever.
Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is caused by filariae (tiny worms) spread to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause a range of illnesses. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine available for lymphatic filariasis although drug treatments exist.
Zika virus infection
Zika virus infection is a risk in this country. The mosquito that spreads the virus is found here.
All travellers should protect themselves from mosquito bites and other diseases spread by insects.
- There is a risk of malaria in certain areas and/or during a certain time of year in this country.
- Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. There is no vaccine against malaria.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in enclosed air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider pre-treating clothing and travel gear with insecticides and sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet.
- Antimalarial medication may be recommended depending on your itinerary and the time of year you are travelling. See a health care professional or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss your options.
Animals and Illness
Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in Southern Asia, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.
Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.
For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.
Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care professional.
High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.
Medical services and facilities
Outside the Kathmandu Valley and Pokhara, medical services and facilities do not meet standards you might expect in Canada.
Most hospitals require up-front payment or confirmation of insurance coverage prior to commencing treatment. Following an incident or accident, you should contact your travel insurance company without delay.
Medical evacuation to Bangkok, Thailand, New Delhi, India, or Singapore is often necessary for serious conditions. Carry medical and first aid kits.
Make sure you get travel insurance that includes coverage for medical evacuation and hospital stays.
Trekkers may experience frostbite and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at high altitudes. AMS can be deadly. Carry travel and health insurance that includes provisions for helicopter rescue, medical evacuation and treatment for accidental injury and medical emergencies.
Keep in Mind...
The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.
Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.
Laws and culture
Laws & culture
You must abide by local laws.
Learn about what you should do and how we can help if you are arrested or detained abroad.
Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are severe. Convicted offenders can expect jail sentences, including life imprisonment, and heavy fines.
Photography of military installations and personnel is prohibited.
You may not bring any kind of firearm into Nepal. Violators who bring in firearms or ammunition may be prosecuted. This includes firearm imitations or in jewelry form.
Traffic drives on the left.
You must carry an international driving permit.
There is zero tolerance for driving under the influence of alcohol.
Helmets are mandatory for motorcycle drivers.
Women should dress conservatively in public.
Public displays of affection are considered to be inappropriate at many of Nepal’s religious sites.
Commercial surrogacy services for foreigners is banned in Nepal. If you have already entered into such an arrangement, you should seek advice from a local lawyer on how this ban could affect your situation and, in particular, on any exit requirement.
Dual citizenship is not legally recognized in Nepal.
If local authorities consider you a citizen of Nepal, they may refuse to grant you access to Canadian consular services. This will prevent us from providing you with those services.
The currency is the Nepalese rupee (NPR).
The economy is largely cash-based; however, credit cards can be used in major stores, hotels and restaurants. ATMs are available in larger cities such as Kathmandu and Pokhara.
It is illegal to take NPR banknotes out of the country.
Any amount over US$5,000 in cash (or equivalent in foreign currencies) must be declared at customs upon arrival in Nepal.
Natural disasters and climate
Natural disasters & climate
Nepal is located in an active seismic zone and there is a continued risk of earthquakes, aftershocks and landslides.
Become familiar with local earthquake safety procedures.
In the event of an earthquake, exercise caution, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.
The rainy (or monsoon) season extends from June to September. Severe rainstorms can cause flooding and landslides, resulting in significant loss of life and extensive damage to infrastructure, and hampering the provision of essential services.
In case of emergency, dial:
- police: 100
- tourist police: + 977 1 424 7041
- medical assistance: 102
- firefighters: 101
- Tourist Police in Kathmandu: 1144 (hotline)
- Tourist Police in Pokhara: +977 61 462761
- Thamel Tourism Development Council: +977 1 4700750
Kathmandu - Consulate of Canada
New Delhi - High Commission of Canada
For emergency consular assistance, call the consulate of Canada in Kathmandu and follow the instructions. At any time, you may also contact the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa.
The decision to travel is your choice and you are responsible for your personal safety abroad. We take the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provide credible and timely information in our Travel Advice to enable you to make well-informed decisions regarding your travel abroad.
The content on this page is provided for information only. While we make every effort to give you correct information, it is provided on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind, express or implied. The Government of Canada does not assume responsibility and will not be liable for any damages in connection to the information provided.
If you need consular assistance while abroad, we will make every effort to help you. However, there may be constraints that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide services.
Learn more about consular services.
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