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NICARAGUA - Exercise a high degree of caution
There is no nationwide advisory in effect for Nicaragua. However, you should exercise a high degree of caution due to armed violence that is commonly used during criminal activities.
Travel Health Notice - Zika virus
The Public Health Agency of Canada has issued a Travel Health Notice for the Global Update: Zika virus infection recommending that Canadians practice special health precautions while travelling in affected countries. Pregnant women and those considering becoming pregnant should avoid travel to Nicaragua. See Health for more information.
Safety and security
Safety and security
Armed conflict broke out on the river town of Waspan, located in the Northern Caribbean Autonomous Region of Nicaragua on the border with Honduras, in September 2015. There are confirmed reports of deaths as a result of this conflict. Exercise extreme caution if travelling to this town and surrounding areas.
Street crime such as pickpocketing and bag snatching is common, and tends to increase during holiday seasons such as Christmas and Easter. Use only hotels that provide adequate security.
Remain alert when walking in markets, in the vicinity of the old cathedral in Managua, near Tica bus (the terminal for lines coming from Honduras and Costa Rica), at public transportation terminals and in poorer areas. Avoid the Mercado Oriental in Managua. Exercise common sense and ensure that your personal belongings, passports and other travel documents are secure at all times.
Carry a photocopy of the identification page of your passport and a photocopy of the page that was stamped by local immigration authorities at the point of entry, and keep the original in a secure place. Do not carry large sums of money, especially while travelling on buses. Purse, backpack and jewellery snatching occurs while drivers are stopped at intersections and while pedestrians are walking on the street.
Violent crime, including armed robbery and sexual assault, occurs in Managua, Granada and San Juan del Sur, as well as in Bonanza, La Rosita, Siuna and on Little Corn Island. Express kidnappings, in which victims are abducted for a few hours and forced to withdraw money from automated banking machines, also occur in these areas. If attacked, do not resist, as criminals often carry weapons and may become violent.
Confrontations between rival gangs of youth have led to an increase in violent incidents in certain neighbourhoods of Granada. Exercise caution and avoid walking through non-tourist areas of the city, especially after dark.
There have been incidents, some violent, of passengers being robbed by taxi drivers or by people posing as taxi drivers using unauthorized taxi signs on their cars. Take taxis from hotels or from main entrances to shopping malls, and make detailed arrangements for the return trip. Use only taxis that have red plates and that have a circle on the door that says Cooperativa or taxi services ordered by phone. Arrange with the taxi driver not to pick up any other passengers on the way to your destination, even if it is more expensive.
Police presence is extremely scarce outside of major urban areas. Restrict travel to tourist areas and to daylight hours. Hitchhiking in Nicaragua is highly unadvisable. Travel in groups whenever possible.
Women travelling alone may be subject to certain forms of harassment and verbal abuse. Consult our publication entitled Her Own Way: A Woman’s Safe-Travel Guide for travel safety information specifically for Canadian women. Be particularly careful in the evening and on non-tourist areas of towns and cities. Local authorities may not regard harassment as unlawful unless physical contact or explicit threats are made.
Demonstrations and elections
Demonstrations occur and can lead to significant disruptions to traffic and public transportation in large cities, particularly the capital city of Managua. Access to the Managua International Airport and to the area of Carretera a Masaya (where universities, shopping malls and restaurants are located) may be affected. Periodic violence may occur on the streets as a result of protests.
Political demonstrations may increase in the lead-up to the presidential elections scheduled for November 6, 2016. Nicaragua has experienced election-related violence in the past that has resulted in clashes between law enforcement and protestors and between rival political groups. Incidents have involved the use of rubber bullets, rock throwing, tire burning, road blocks, as well as the burning of buses and other vehicles. Remain aware of your surroundings at all times and do not attempt to cross roadblocks. Monitor local media reports for up-to-date information. Follow the advice of local authorities and avoid large crowds and demonstrations, as turn violent with little to no warning.
Despite regular security patrols by the Nicaraguan Army and Police, armed banditry occurs in areas near Bonanza, La Rosita and Siuna (the Mining Triangle) in northeastern Nicaragua. Carjackings have also been reported between Managua and Puerto Cabezas. Restrict road travel in these area to daylight hours, and travel in convoys of at least two vehicles. Due to this type of criminal activity, only travel overland to Honduras on highways with official border crossings at Guasaule, El Espino and Las Manos.
Driving standards are fair. Except for the Pan-American Highway, most roads lack shoulders, are narrow, potholed and poorly lit. Road signs are usually non-existent, and most streets are unnamed. Detours are common but are often not marked. Driving after dark is very dangerous. Roadside assistance is not available. Cell phone coverage outside urban areas is fair in the central and pacific areas, but can be lacking in mountainous areas and in the Caribbean. Keep your car windows closed and doors locked when driving through crowded areas.
Vehicles, especially taxis and buses, are poorly maintained. Avoid using public transportation, which is overcrowded, unreliable and often targeted by pickpockets. Avoid conversations with friendly strangers and do not reveal your intended destination. Do not agree to share a cab at the end of a bus ride, and be cautious of any advice and/or shortcut that could convince you to get off a bus earlier than planned. There have been many instances of travellers being assaulted in such situations.
The Caribbean and, to a lesser extent, the Pacific coasts of Nicaragua are known to be drug transit zones.
The Government of Canada does not assess foreign domestic airlines’ compliance with international aviation safety standards. See Foreign domestic airlines for more information.
General safety information
Exercise caution when swimming, as strong currents and undertows have resulted in drownings. Warning signs, lifeguards and rescue equipment are often lacking.
Fraudulent tour guides have been known to operate on the island of Ometepe. Consult hotel staff and local authorities for information on reputable tour guides.
Nicaragua does not have an extensive tourist infrastructure. INTUR, the governmental agency responsible for developing, regulating and promoting tourism in Nicaragua, offers some information in English.
It is the sole prerogative of every country or territory to determine who is allowed to enter or exit. Canadian consular officials cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet entry or exit requirements. The following information has been obtained from the Nicaraguan authorities and is subject to change at any time. The country- or territory-specific entry/exit requirements are provided on this page for information purposes only. While every effort is made to provide accurate information, information contained here is provided on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind, express or implied. The Government of Canada assumes no responsibility, and shall not be liable for any damages in connection to the information provided. It is your responsibility to check with the Embassy of the Republic of Nicaragua or one of its consulates for up-to-date information.
Official (special and diplomatic) passport holders must consult the Official Travel page, as they may be subject to different entry requirements.
Canadians must present a passport to visit Nicaragua, which must be valid for at least six months beyond the date of expected departure from that country. Prior to travelling, ask your transportation company about its requirements related to passport validity, which may be more stringent than the country's entry rules.
Temporary passport holders may be subject to different entry requirements. Check with diplomatic representatives for up-to-date information.
Tourist card: Required
Business visa: Not required
Student visa: Not required
Canadians must be in possession of a tourist card, which is usually obtained at a port of entry for a US$10 fee, payable in cash. The tourist card allows travel within the C-4 countries (see below).
You must also present a return or onward ticket and evidence of sufficient funds for the duration of your trip.
Central America-4 Border Control Agreement
Under the terms of the Central America-4 Border Control Agreement (C-4), Canadian tourists may travel within any of the C-4 countries – Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala – for a period of up to 90 days, without completing entry and exit formalities at border immigration checkpoints. This period begins at the first point of entry to any of the C-4 countries. Travellers who exceed the 90-day limit can expect to pay a fine. An extension of up to 90 days is permitted once a year. You must request this extension and pay the required fee to Immigration authorities before the initial 90 day-limit expires. The length of the extension is at the discretion of the Immigration authorities of Nicaragua.
Canadian-Nicaraguan dual citizens (including minors) may enter Nicaragua without a Nicaraguan passport, but require one in order to leave the country, unless their stay is less than 90 days. Children born in Nicaragua also require a Nicaraguan passport to leave. To obtain a Nicaraguan passport, dual citizens should contact the Embassy of the Republic of Nicaragua or the Ministerio de Gobernacion (in Spanish). When travelling to Canada, all dual citizens require a valid Canadian passport.
See Laws and Culture for more information.
An airport tax of US$32 is charged upon departure; however, it is usually included in the price of airline tickets. Agents will advise at the check-in counter if you must pay the airport tax.
Children and travel
Children need special documentation to visit certain countries. See Children for more information.
See Health to obtain information on this country’s vaccination requirements.
Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Vaccines to Consider
You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.
Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread through contaminated food and water or contact with an infected person. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment, sharing needles, tattooing, acupuncture or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.
Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Get the flu shot.
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease and is common in most parts of the world. Be sure your measles vaccination is up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Rabies is a deadly illness spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from an infected animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).
Yellow Fever Vaccination
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.
Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.
|* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.|
|Country Entry Requirement*|
Food and Water-borne Diseases
Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.
In some areas in Central America and Mexico, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Central America and Mexico. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that typically causes fever, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, skin rash and eye infection.
Most travellers are at low risk. Risk increases when travelling to tropical regions, participating in freshwater activities (e.g., swimming, rafting), or having close contact with animals, especially rats. There is no vaccine available for leptospirosis, but travellers at high risk may wish to consider pre-exposure antibiotics.
- Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
- Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
- The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.
Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among pediatric travellers, travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives or travelling for a long period of time. Travellers at high risk visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should speak to a health care provider about vaccination.
Insects and Illness
In some areas in Central America and Mexico, certain insects carry and spread diseases like American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), chikungunya, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, malaria, onchocerciasis (river blindness), West Nile virus, and Zika virus.
Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.
There is currently an outbreak of chikungunya in this country. Chikungunya is a viral disease spread through the bite of an infected mosquito that typically causes fever and pain in the joints. Protect yourself from mosquito bites, particularly around sunrise and sunset. There is no vaccine available for chikungunya.
- Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.
- The risk of dengue is higher during the daytime, particularly at sunrise and sunset.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or medication that protects against dengue fever.
Locally acquired mosquito-associated Zika virus is currently being reported in this country. Zika virus infection is primarily spread by the bite of an infected mosquito and can cause fever, rash, and joint pain. It can also be transmitted through blood, semen and from an infected pregnant woman to her developing baby. Most people do not develop symptoms and recover fully without severe complications. There is scientific consensus that Zika virus infection is a cause of both microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Other neurological disorders have also been associated with Zika virus infection. Protect yourself from mosquito bites in daylight and evening hours. There is no vaccine for Zika virus infection.
- There is a risk of malaria in certain areas and/or during a certain time of year in this country.
- Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. There is no vaccine against malaria.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in enclosed air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider pre-treating clothing and travel gear with insecticides and sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet.
- Antimalarial medication may be recommended depending on your itinerary and the time of year you are travelling. See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss your options.
Animals and Illness
Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Some infections found in Central America and Mexico, like rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.
Medical services and facilities
Medical care is limited, especially outside of Managua. Certain types of medical equipment or medications may be unavailable in the country. Most doctors and hospital personnel do not speak English or French. Many institutions often expect immediate cash payment for medical care, except for a few private hospitals that will accept major credit cards for payment and in which doctors usually speak English.
Keep in Mind...
The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.
Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.
Laws and culture
Laws & culture
You are subject to local laws. See Arrest and detention for more information.
Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are strict. Convicted offenders can expect heavy fines and jail sentences. The conditions in Nicaraguan prisons are extremely basic; prisoners are expected to supply their own food, bedding and medical care beyond basic first aid. A transfer of offenders treaty has not been signed with Nicaragua.
Canadians in Nicaragua may use their Canadian driver’s licence for no more than 30 days, after which they must obtain an international driving permit. Vehicle insurance is mandatory for foreigners (including residents).
Dual citizenship is legally recognized in Nicaragua. However, Canadian officials may be limited in their ability to provide you with consular services if local authorities consider you a Nicaragua citizen. You should always travel using your valid Canadian passport and present yourself as Canadian to foreign authorities at all times to minimize this risk. You may also need to carry and present a Nicaragua passport for legal reasons, for example to enter and exit the country (see Entry/exit requirements to determine passport requirements). Citizenship is determined solely by national laws, and the decision to recognize dual citizenship rests completely with the country in which you are located when seeking consular assistance. See Travelling as a dual citizen for more information.
The currency is the córdoba (NIO). Most restaurants and hotels in Managua accept credit cards. Canadian dollars cannot be exchanged for local currency anywhere, but U.S. dollars (in cash or traveller’s cheques) are widely used. Exchange foreign currency only at banks or official exchange offices.
Natural disasters and climate
Natural disasters & climate
The hurricane season extends from June to the end of November. The National Hurricane Center provides additional information on weather conditions. Stay informed of regional weather forecasts, and follow the advice and instructions of local authorities.
Seismic and volcanic activity
Nicaragua is located in a very active seismic zone. A magnitude 6.2 earthquake damaged houses and caused numerous injuries on April 10, 2014, followed by a magnitude 6.6 earthquake on April 11, 2014, and several strong aftershocks. Familiarize yourself with your hotel’s earthquake security measures.
Volcanic activity also occurs. The Telica, Momotombo, San Cristóbal, Cerro Negro and Santiago volcanoes, among others, are monitored by Nicaraguan Institute of Territorial Studies (Ineter). Eruptions are possible. Ash fall and gas emanations are hazardous. In the event of an earthquake or volcanic eruption, follow the advice of local authorities, including possible evacuation orders, and monitor local news reports.
Sudden, localized flash flooding regularly occurs in urban areas, including on main thoroughfares during and after summer rainstorms. Avoid travel whenever possible during these events. Local rescue and assistance services may be inadequate and require time to provide assistance should you require it.
In case of emergency, dial:
- police: 118
- medical assistance: 128
- firefighters: 115
Managua - Embassy of Canada (Program Office)
San José - Embassy of Canada
For emergency assistance after hours, call the Office of the Embassy of Canada in Managua and follow the instructions. You may also make a collect call to the Emergency Operations Centre in Ottawa at 613-996-8885.
The decision to travel is your choice and you are responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice to enable you to make well-informed decisions regarding your travel abroad. In the event of a large-scale emergency, every effort will be made to provide assistance. However, there may be constraints that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide services.
See Large-scale emergencies abroad for more information.
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