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IRAQ - AVOID ALL TRAVEL
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada advises against all travel to Iraq, excluding the areas controlled by the Kurdistan Regional Government. The security situation throughout Iraq is very volatile, dangerous and unpredictable, and could deteriorate further with very little warning. If you are in Iraq, consider departing by commercial means if it is safe to do so.
If you choose to travel to Iraq despite this warning, ensure that you are accompanied by professional security escorts at all times and carefully review your security arrangements on a regular basis. The Government of Canada’s ability to provide consular assistance in all parts of Iraq is severely limited.
Provinces of Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah, which are under the control of the Kurdistan Regional GovernmentForeign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada advises against non-essential travel to the provinces of Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah, which are under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government. The security situation in the Kurdistan region could deteriorate quickly. See Security for more information.
The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.
Following attacks on Mosul and other cities in northern Iraq, and threats of attack on Baghdad by extremists, the security situation in Iraq has become extremely volatile and could deteriorate with little or no notice. Attacks by extremists in towns to the southwest of Erbil under control of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) occurred in early August.
If you are currently in Iraq, consider departing by commercial means if it is safe to do so. Monitor local news reports and instructions from local authorities closely, and remain alert to your surroundings at all times.
Extremist insurgents led by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) have threatened to push to Baghdad and regions further south.
Since March 2013, the number and intensity of security incidents and sectarian-related violence have increased across Iraq, and this trend is expected to continue. Popular targets include Iraqi security forces, government offices as well as large public gatherings. Potential Arab-Kurd violence is also of concern. Iraq’s internal stability is further undermined by the ongoing political situation, in which government officials compete for power along ethnic and sectarian lines.
Car bombings, vehicle ambushes, and mortar and rocket attacks occur periodically across the country, including in Baghdad and the International Zone, resulting in numerous fatalities. These attacks are coordinated and cyclical in nature with recorded incidents generally declining after a spike of violence as security is tightened and as terrorist and insurgent groups prepare for future attacks. Many bystanders are injured or killed during these attacks; the risk of being in the wrong place at the wrong time remains high.
A higher risk of terrorist attacks and violent demonstrations remains following the federal elections of April 30, 2014, as the validation of results and ongoing negotiations to form a new government contribute to political instability.
Be extremely confident in your security arrangements, assess the risks of travelling in Iraq, monitor local developments closely, and register with the Embassy of Canada in Amman, Jordan. Due to the unpredictable security situation, The Government of Canada’s ability to provide consular assistance in all parts of Iraq is severely limited.
Armed clashes between Iraqi security forces and militants have been taking place in the province of Anbar since the beginning of 2014, with the most severe fighting concentrated to Fallujah and Ramadi. Numerous casualties have been reported and thousands of residents have fled the province.
Sectarian violence and terrorist activity have increased since early 2013 in the provinces of Nineveh, Salaheddin and Diyala, including frequent improvised explosive device attacks.
Provinces of Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah, under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG)
In recent years, the areas under the control of the KRG have been less affected by violence and terrorism than other parts of Iraq. However, these areas remain vulnerable to the impacts of both regional instability and internal tensions. Extremist insurgents led by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) are responsible for attacks on areas under the control of the KRG, including towns southwest of Erbil. If you are in the Kurdistan region, you should take precautions to leave areas close to the conflict. Exercise a heightened level of vigilance and plan your security arrangements accordingly.
Avoid border areas where Turkey and Iran conduct occasional cross-border military operations against Turkish and Iranian Kurdish rebel groups.
Given the very volatile security situation, you may be refused entry into KRG-controlled areas from border points in Iraq.
Threats to foreigners
Except in the Kurdistan region, the threat to foreigners, including Canadians, is very high. Foreigners are a prime kidnapping target for criminal and terrorist groups hoping to extort money.
While increasing numbers of international business people travel throughout much of Iraq, they do so under restricted movement conditions and almost always with close security protection. Stay in secure, guarded accommodations, travel with close protection teams at all times and take all necessary security precautions if you decide to travel to Iraq. You are also strongly advised to consider employing a professional security company and to adhere to their advice for the duration of your stay and to acquire comprehensive travel and medical insurance before travelling.
Demonstrations and retaliatory attacks have been occurring across Iraq since April 23, 2013, when clashes between security forces and protestors in Hajiwa left more than 50 people dead.
Deaths and injuries are typical of these incidents in Iraq. There is greater unrest in the western and northern provinces due to ongoing Sunni protests and increased militant activity. Avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.
Crime and corruption are rampant. Carjackings and robberies are common. The security situation deteriorates after nightfall in most areas. Violent conflicts involving organized criminal elements, street gangs, militant groups, rival militias and Iraqi security forces pose grave dangers.
Security checkpoints have proliferated in Baghdad and in other parts of Iraq. Exercise extra respect and cooperation at security checkpoints as tensions are heightened. An Iraqi police or army uniform is not a guarantee that the wearer is bona fide or operating in an official capacity. Exercise particular caution at ad hoc checkpoints, where murders, kidnappings and robberies frequently occur.
Baghdad’s International Zone
Movements in and out of Baghdad’s International Zone (IZ) are controlled by Iraqi security forces. All IZ entry control points are closed from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m., with the exception of the entry control point leading to Baghdad International Airport, which closes at midnight. There is a heavy presence of Iraqi security forces throughout the IZ and vehicle check- points may be established at any time without prior notice.
Avoid travelling to border areas. Iraqi forces are currently attempting to contain the effects of the deteriorating security situation in Syria, and Kurdish rebel groups are frequent targets of military operations into Turkey and northwest Iran. You may encounter serious problems with local authorities when unknowingly crossing porous borders.
Consult our publication entitled Her Own Way: A Woman’s Safe-Travel Guide for travel safety information specifically aimed at Canadian women.
Motorists frequently disobey traffic rules, including traffic lights, failing to yield to pedestrians at crosswalks, speeding, tailgating and not yielding the right of way. Avoid road travel at night.
Due to the country’s high liability risk, you may have difficulties obtaining car insurance.
Travel by road is not safe. Although travel at night is especially dangerous, attacks are also common during the day.
Avoid all travel by road from Amman to Baghdad in light of the heightened security threat. The road leading to Baghdad’s airport has also been the target of several attacks.
Buses run irregularly and routes are subject to frequent changes. Rundown transit vehicles are frequently involved in accidents.
Avoid travelling by rail in Iraq, as the railroad is old and poorly maintained.
See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.
General safety information
Curfews may be imposed throughout the country on short notice. Monitor the media in order to stay informed of changes.
Carry photo identification as well as a legally certified copy of your visa and registration at all times. Keep your passport and visa in safekeeping facilities.
Telecommunications facilities are very poor or non-existent in remote areas. The use of mobile phones is widespread in the major cities.
It is the sole prerogative of each country or region to determine who is allowed to enter. The following information on entry and exit requirements has been obtained from the Iraqi authorities. However, these requirements are subject to change at any time. It is your responsibility to check with the Embassy of the Republic of Iraq for up-to-date information.
Official (special and diplomatic) passport holders must consult the Official Travel page, as they may be subject to different entry requirements.
Entry or re-entry into Iraq from other countries is problematic, and you may be refused permission to enter.
Canadians must present a passport to visit Iraq, which must be valid for at least six months beyond the date of expected departure from that country.
Canadians must be in possession of a visa to visit Iraq. You will require a visit visa if you remain in Iraq for less than five days. After 10 days in the country, you must renew your visa at the Iraqi Residence Office (Ministry of Interior). After three months in Iraq, you must apply for a one-year residence permit to regularize your entry visa.
You cannot leave Iraq with more than US$10,000 in cash unless it has been declared upon entry.
It is strictly prohibited to take antiquities, archaeological finds or antique carpets out of Iraq, in accordance with the Convention and First Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
Children and travel
Children need special documentation to visit certain countries. See Children for more information.
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Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Vaccines to Consider
You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.
Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread through contaminated food and water or contact with an infected person. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment, sharing needles, tattooing, acupuncture or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.
Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Get the flu shot.
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease and is common in most parts of the world. Be sure your measles vaccination is up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
There is a risk of polio in this country. Be sure that your vaccination against polio is up-to-date.
Rabies is a deadly illness spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from an infected animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).
Yellow Fever Vaccination
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.
Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.
|* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.|
|Country Entry Requirement*|
Food and Water-borne Diseases
Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.
In some areas in Western Asia, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Western Asia. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
Cholera is a bacterial disease that is most often spread by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated. It causes diarrhea and in severe cases it can lead to dehydration and even death.
Most travellers are at very low risk. Travellers at higher risk include those visiting, working or living in areas with limited access to safe food, water and proper sanitation, or to areas where outbreaks are occurring. Travellers at higher risk should discuss with a health care provider the benefits of getting vaccinated.
- Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
- Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
- The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.
Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among pediatric travellers, travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives or travelling for a long period of time. Travellers at high risk visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should speak to a health care provider about vaccination.
Insects and Illness
In some areas in Western Asia, certain insects carry and spread diseases like chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and West Nile virus.
Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.
There is currently an outbreak of chikungunya in this country. Chikungunya is a viral disease spread through the bite of an infected mosquito that typically causes fever and pain in the joints. Protect yourself from mosquito bites, particularly around sunrise and sunset. There is no vaccine available for chikungunya.
- There is a limited risk of malaria in this country.
- Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by the bite of an mosquito. There is no vaccine against malaria.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in enclosed air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider pre-treating clothing and travel gear with insecticides and sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet.
Animals and Illness
Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Certain infections found in some areas in Western Asia, like avian influenza and rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.
There have been human cases of avian influenza in this country. Avian influenza is a viral infection that can spread quickly and easily among birds and in rare cases, it can infect people.
Avoid high risk areas such as poultry farms and live animal markets including areas where poultry may be slaughtered. Avoid contact with birds (alive or dead) and surfaces that may have bird droppings or secretions on them. Ensure all poultry dishes, including eggs, are well cooked.
Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.
For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.
Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.
High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.
Keep in Mind...
The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.
Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.
Laws & culture
Laws & culture
You are subject to local laws. See Arrest and detention for more information.
An international driving permit is required.
The work week is from Sunday to Thursday.
Illegal or restricted activities
Religious proselytizing is forbidden.
The use of drugs and alcohol is prohibited. Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are strict. Convicted offenders can expect a long detention or even death penalties.
Do not drink alcohol outside licensed facilities. There is a zero tolerance policy regarding drinking and driving.
Dual citizenship is not legally recognized, which may limit the ability of Canadian officials to provide consular services. You should travel using your Canadian passport and present yourself as Canadian to foreign authorities at all times. Consult our publication entitled Dual Citizenship: What You Need to Know for more information.
According to Iraqi law, the child of a male Iraqi national is considered an Iraqi national. Even if the name of the child is written in the mother’s foreign passport, Iraqi authorities may consider the child an Iraqi national and the child will require the father’s permission to travel.
Islamic practices and beliefs form the basis of the country’s customs, laws and regulations. Dress conservatively, behave discreetly, and respect religious and social traditions to avoid offending local sensitivities.
The currency is the Iraqi dinar (IQD). The economy is primarily cash-based. U.S. dollars are accepted. Credit cards and traveller’s cheques are not accepted. There are very few automated banking machines.
Natural disasters & climate
Natural disasters & climate
Iraq is subject to sandstorms and dust storms as well as flooding caused by heavy rains.
The weather is very dry and hot from May to October.
You can obtain consular assistance and further consular information from the Embassy of Canada in Amman, Jordan.
Amman - Embassy of Canada
For emergency assistance after hours, call the Embassy of Canada in Amman, Jordan and follow the instructions. You may also call the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa at 613-996-8885.
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