Brazil travel advice

Latest updates: Risk levels - added information on regional risk levels for border areas

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Risk level

Brazil - Exercise a high degree of caution

Exercise a high degree of caution in Brazil due to high crime rates and regular incidents of gang-related and other violence in urban areas.

Border areas - Avoid non-essential travel

Avoid non-essential travel to the following border areas due to drug-related criminal activity and arms smuggling by illegal armed groups and other criminal organizations:

  • within 20 km of the border with Argentina, excluding Iguazú National Park
  • within 20 km of the border with Bolivia, excluding Pantanal National Park
  • within 20 km of the border with Colombia
  • within 20 km of the border with French Guiana
  • within 20 km of the border with Guyana
  • within 20 km of the border with Paraguay
  • within 20 km of the border with Peru
  • within 20 km of the border with Suriname
  • within 50 km of the border with Venezuela


 

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Safety and security

Crime

Crime rates are high throughout the country, particularly in:

  • Brasilia
  • Porto Alegre
  • Recife
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • Salvador
  • São Paulo

Tourists are most commonly affected by theft, but incidents of violent crime have occurred.

Violent crime

Violent crime occurs, namely:

  • carjacking
  • home invasion
  • armed robbery
  • sexual assault

Violent crime, often involving weapons, is common.  

The following areas have high incidences of violent crime:

  • Rio de Janeiro 
    • Christ the Redeemer statue
    • Copacabana Beach
    • Corcovado Trail
    • Ipanema Beach
    • Lapa neighbourhood
    • Santa Teresa neighbourhood
  • São Paulo
    • around São Paulo Cathedral
    • Avenida Paulista
    • Central market
    • historical downtown area
    • Pinacoteca
    • Princess Isabel Square
    • Station of light
  • Satellite cities of Brasilia
    • Ceilândia
    • Paranoá
    • Santa Maria
    • São Sebastião

If you decide to travel to these areas:

  • exercise a high degree of caution at all times
  • avoid travelling alone, especially at night
  • avoid parks or central areas of major cities
  • avoid poorly lit and isolated streets
  • avoid walking on isolated and unsupervised beaches, especially at night
  • if you’re threatened by robbers, don’t resist.

Robberies

Robberies, often armed with weapons such as guns and knives, occur regularly. Victims are generally selected on the basis of perceived wealth, including using cell phones and laptops. 

Robberies occur in and around:

  • ATMS and currency exchange bureaus
  • bars
  • beaches
  • hiking trails
  • hotels
  • nightclubs
  • outdoor markets
  • parks
  • parking lots
  • public transport
  • restaurants
  • road closures
  • traffic jams
  • trains
  • unregistered taxis

Drive-by snatching by armed thieves on motorcycles occurs regularly, particularly in São Paulo and Porto Alegre. 

  • Keep car windows and doors locked at all times
  • If you feel threatened while driving at any time, do not stop

Victims have been seriously injured or killed when resisting perpetrators, who may be armed or under the influence of drugs.

Spiked food and drinks

Spiked food and drink incidents are increasing in Brazil, particularly in Rio de Janeiro.

Incidents of spiked food and drinks to force victims to use their debit or credit card to withdraw money from ATMs has been reported, including on beaches in Rio de Janeiro and crowded restaurants in São Paulo.

The use of drugs to facilitate sexual assault and robbery against foreigners has also been reported. Assaults frequently occur in unofficial taxis.

Incidents occur:

  • in bars and restaurants
  • in hotels
  • in nightclubs
  • at public beaches

While you’re in Brazil:

  • never leave food or drinks unattended or in the care of strangers 
  • be wary of accepting these items from new acquaintances 
  • ask for drinks coming from sealed bottles or cans instead of in plastic cups
  • in restaurants, avoid sitting close to the entrance

Petty crime

Street crime, including pickpocketing, purse snatching and theft from cars, is common in Brazil’s large cities. Tourists are a favourite target.

Petty theft on buses and the metro is common. It is a significant concern in Recife.

Incidents of opportunistic crime increase significantly at large-scale sporting events, international conferences and during holidays such as the Carnival and New Year’s celebrations.

Flash mob robberies (arrastões) have occurred sporadically on Rio’s city beaches and in other crowded tourist areas. This type of crime involves a group of thieves (often young children and youth originating from nearby favelas) that swarm an area and snatch valuable items such as cash, jewellery and cell phones.

A common ruse used by criminals is the Good Samaritan scam, where a criminal offers to help a tourist who looks lost. If you are lost, go into a nearby business or hotel to ask for help.

  • Ensure that your personal belongings, including your passport and other travel documents, are secure at all times
  • Remain vigilant when visiting tourist destinations such as:
    • beaches
    • outdoor markets
    • hotel grounds
    • bars and nightclubs
    • airports and bus stations
  • Avoid showing signs of affluence such as expensive jewellery, watches, clothing and bags
  • Carry only small amounts of cash
  • Keep cameras and portable electronic devices concealed
  • Be aware of ploys to distract your attention
  • Remain cautious with new acquaintances who ask for information or offer hospitality or assistance
  • Book tours with reliable agencies

Express kidnappings

The number of kidnappings in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area has significantly increased since 2022.

Criminals may kidnap a victim for a few hours and force them to withdraw funds at an ATM for their release. Thieves may put drugs into food and drinks, temporarily incapacitating victims, who become quickly disoriented and are vulnerable to kidnapping.

  • Use only a reputable taxi company or a trusted ride-sharing app
  • Avoid showing signs of affluence, such using cell phones, headphones and wearing jewelry
  • Never leave food or drinks unattended or in the care of strangers
  • Be wary of accepting these items from new acquaintances

Borders with Colombia and Venezuela

There is a concerning level of serious criminal activity by organized criminal groups along the border areas with countries bordering Brazil, particularly Colombia and Venezuela. Incidents of attacks on tourists and kidnapping have occurred. Be extremely cautious when crossing into bordering countries.

Vulnerable neighborhoods

Vulnerable neighborhoods (commonly referred to as “favelas”), are characterized by informal housing developments, crowded quarters, poorer conditions, and/or irregular construction.

Gang-related violence and organized crime is prevalent in these areas and police assistance is very limited.

Avoid renting accommodations in vulnerable neighborhoods, and travelling to these areas, even on a guided tour.

Police operations

Armed clashes and shootouts between police forces and alleged criminals regularly occur in vulnerable neighbourhoods. Police operations have led to retaliation by criminal gangs. Vulnerable neighbourhoods are located across major cities, as a result, there is an ongoing risk of violence spilling over to neighbouring areas, including affluent neighbourhoods and tourist destinations. There have been incidents of injuries and deaths as a result of stray bullets near, and in, vulnerable neighbourhoods.

Fraud

Credit card and ATM fraud is a major problem. Be cautious when using debit or credit cards:

  • pay careful attention when your cards are being handled by others
  • use ATMs located in well-lit public areas or inside a bank or business
  • avoid using card readers with an irregular or unusual feature
  • cover the keypad with one hand when entering your PIN
  • check for any unauthorized transactions on your account statements

Cybercrime is also a growing problem.  Perpetrators monitor social media sites and eavesdrop on your conversations when you are in the country.

  • Do not discuss travel plans or any other personal information within earshot of strangers
  • Be cautious when posting information on social media
  • Be particularly vigilant in internet cafes

Overseas fraud

Piracy

Pirate attacks and armed robbery against ships occur in coastal waters. Mariners should take appropriate precautions.

Live piracy report - International Maritime Bureau’s Piracy Reporting Centre

Demonstrations

Demonstrations take place regularly. Even peaceful demonstrations can turn violent at any time. They can also lead to disruptions to traffic and public transportation.

Protests can cause delays on main roads, including to airports, such as to the Guarulhos International Airport in São Paulo. Demonstrations tend to increase in frequency and intensity during major events that attract foreign visitors.

  • Avoid areas where demonstrations and large gatherings are taking place
  • Follow the instructions of local authorities
  • Monitor local media for information on ongoing demonstrations

Mass gatherings (large-scale events)

Women’s safety

Women travelling alone may be subject to some forms of harassment and verbal abuse.

  • Avoid travelling alone at night
  • Avoid carrying purses

Advice for women travellers

Swimming

Coastal waters can be dangerous.

  • Swim or surf in areas where lifeguards are located
  • Avoid swimming where there are strong currents
  • Be wary of sharks, especially in Brazil’s north east near Recife
  • Follow the instructions and warnings of local authorities.

Trekking

Robberies are frequent and occur in tourist destinations, including on hiking trails. Be especially cautious on the Corcovado trail in Rio, where several robberies have happened.

If you intend on trekking: 

  • never do so alone
  • always hire an experienced guide from a reputable company
  • buy travel insurance
  • ensure that your physical condition is good enough to meet the challenges of your activity
  • ensure that you’re properly equipped and well informed about weather and other conditions that may pose a hazard
  • inform a family member or friend of your itinerary, including when you expect to be back
  • obtain detailed information on trekking routes before setting out
  • ensure the trail doesn’t pass through a favela
  • do not venture off marked trail

Adventure tourism

Amazon border regions and the Pantanal wetlands are largely uninhabited and dangerous areas.

Travel in these regions only with trained guides.

Public transportation

Subways

The subway systems in Rio and in São Paulo are generally safe during the day. Be extremely cautious using public transportation at night

Buses

There have been reports of theft and violence on city buses in Rio de Janeiro and near vulnerable neighbourhoods across the country, especially during rush hour.

Inter-city buses are generally reliable. Ensure that you use a reputable company before you book your travel.

Bus accidents occur regularly.

Major bus services charge fixed, pre-paid rates.

Do not use public vans.

Taxis

Local law requires the use of the taxi meter to determine the legal fare. Adding surcharges to a fare is illegal.

Should taxi rates change and their taxi meters have not been adjusted, drivers may indicate these changes by showing an authorized paper with the new fares.

Many tourists hire “radio taxis”, also known as “commun taxis.” These taxis operate at a fixed price irrespective of the time of the day and the time it takes to arrive at your destination.

  • Only use official taxis
  • Upon arrival to Brazil, purchase your fare from licensed taxi offices in the airport arrival hall or near the taxi queues
  • During your stay, use licensed taxis from taxi stands

Road safety

Brazil has one of the highest road accident rates in the world.

Road conditions are generally acceptable in large cities but badly maintained in the rest of the country. Poor signage and construction also pose a hazard.

Drivers do not respect traffic laws. Drivers are extremely aggressive and reckless and often drive at excessive speeds.  

At night, it is common for drivers to treat red lights as stop signs to protect against hold-ups at intersections. Pedestrians and motorists proceeding through green lights during these hours should be particularly cautious.

  • Be careful when stopping on the side of any highway because of traffic
  • Be careful of motorbikes when changing lanes
  • When driving in the city, pay particular attention to your surroundings while waiting at traffic lights
  • If you feel threatened at any time, do not stop
  • If you are in a traffic accident, call the police immediately
  • Never confront the driver of another vehicle

Air travel

We do not make assessments on the compliance of foreign domestic airlines with international safety standards.

Information about foreign domestic airlines

 

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Entry and exit requirements

Visitor visas

Effective April 10, 2025, Canadian passport holders will be required to obtain a visa to enter Brazil.

For more information, contact the nearest embassy or consulate of Brazil.

Every country or territory decides who can enter or exit through its borders. The Government of Canada cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet your destination’s entry or exit requirements.

We have obtained the information on this page from the Brazilian authorities. It can, however, change at any time.

Verify this information with the Foreign Representatives in Canada.

Passport

Entry requirements vary depending on the type of passport you use for travel.

Before you travel, check with your transportation company about passport requirements. Its rules on passport validity may be more stringent than the country’s entry rules.

Regular Canadian passport

Your passport must be valid for at least 6 months beyond the date you expect to leave Brazil.

Passport for official travel

Different entry rules may apply.

Official travel

Passport with “X” gender identifier

While the Government of Canada issues passports with an “X” gender identifier, it cannot guarantee your entry or transit through other countries. You might face entry restrictions in countries that do not recognize the “X” gender identifier. Before you leave, check with the closest foreign representative for your destination.

Other travel documents

Different entry rules may apply when travelling with a temporary passport or an emergency travel document. Before you leave, check with the closest foreign representative for your destination.

Useful links

Visas

Tourist visa: not required for stays of up to 90 days
Business visa: not required for stays of up to 90 days without remuneration
Student visa: not required for stays of up to 90 days

Length of stay

A tourist stay can be granted for up to 90 days. The permitted length of stay for tourists is determined by the immigration officer upon entry.

If you intend to stay more than 90 days, you must obtain an extension from the Federal Police for a maximum stay of 180 days per period of 12 months.

To request a visa extension, you will have to: 

  • request such an extension prior to the expiration of the authorized stay
  • provide your detailed (long-form) birth certificate

In order for your Canadian long form birth certificate to be accepted in Brazil, it must be presented to the Brazilian Embassy or one of its consulates prior to departure from Canada. Neither the Embassy of Canada nor its consulates in Brazil can authenticate a Canadian birth certificate outside of Canada.

Children and travel

Learn more about travelling with children.

Yellow fever

Learn about potential entry requirements related to yellow fever (vaccines section).

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Health

Relevant Travel Health Notices

This section contains information on possible health risks and restrictions regularly found or ongoing in the destination. Follow this advice to lower your risk of becoming ill while travelling. Not all risks are listed below.

Consult a health care professional or visit a travel health clinic preferably 6 weeks before you travel to get personalized health advice and recommendations.

Routine vaccines

Be sure that your routine vaccinations, as per your province or territory, are up-to-date before travelling, regardless of your destination.

Some of these vaccinations include measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, varicella (chickenpox), influenza and others.

Pre-travel vaccines and medications

You may be at risk for preventable diseases while travelling in this destination. Talk to a travel health professional about which medications or vaccines may be right for you, based on your destination and itinerary. 

Yellow Fever - Country Entry Requirements

Yellow fever is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

Risk

  • There is a risk of yellow fever in this country.

Country Entry Requirement*

  • Proof of vaccination is not required to enter this country.

Recommendation

About Yellow Fever
Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres in Canada
* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.

Hepatitis A

There is a risk of hepatitis A in this destination. It is a disease of the liver. People can get hepatitis A if they ingest contaminated food or water, eat foods prepared by an infectious person, or if they have close physical contact (such as oral-anal sex) with an infectious person, although casual contact among people does not spread the virus.

 

Practise safe food and water precautions and wash your hands often. Vaccination is recommended for all travellers to areas where hepatitis A is present.

Hepatitis B

 Hepatitis B is a risk in every destination. It is a viral liver disease that is easily transmitted from one person to another through exposure to blood and body fluids containing the hepatitis B virus.  Travellers who may be exposed to blood or other bodily fluids (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment, sharing needles, tattooing, acupuncture or occupational exposure) are at higher risk of getting hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all travellers. Prevent hepatitis B infection by practicing safe sex, only using new and sterile drug equipment, and only getting tattoos and piercings in settings that follow public health regulations and standards.

Measles

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. It can spread quickly from person to person by direct contact and through droplets in the air.

Anyone who is not protected against measles is at risk of being infected with it when travelling internationally.

Regardless of where you are going, talk to a health care professional before travelling to make sure you are fully protected against measles.

COVID-19

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease. It can spread from person to person by direct contact and through droplets in the air.

It is recommended that all eligible travellers complete a COVID-19 vaccine series along with any additional recommended doses in Canada before travelling. Evidence shows that vaccines are very effective at preventing severe illness, hospitalization and death from COVID-19. While vaccination provides better protection against serious illness, you may still be at risk of infection from the virus that causes COVID-19. Anyone who has not completed a vaccine series is at increased risk of being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 and is at greater risk for severe disease when travelling internationally.

Before travelling, verify your destination’s COVID-19 vaccination entry/exit requirements. Regardless of where you are going, talk to a health care professional before travelling to make sure you are adequately protected against COVID-19.

Influenza

 The best way to protect yourself from seasonal influenza (flu) is to get vaccinated every year. Get the flu shot at least 2 weeks before travelling.  

 The flu occurs worldwide. 

  •  In the Northern Hemisphere, the flu season usually runs from November to   April.
  •  In the Southern Hemisphere, the flu season usually runs between April and   October.
  •  In the tropics, there is flu activity year round. 

The flu vaccine available in one hemisphere may only offer partial protection against the flu in the other hemisphere.

The flu virus spreads from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Clean your hands often and wear a mask if you have a fever or respiratory symptoms.

Malaria

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease that is caused by parasites spread through the bites of mosquitoes.
 
There is a risk of malaria in certain areas and/or during a certain time of year in this destination. 

Antimalarial medication may be recommended depending on your itinerary and the time of year you are travelling. Consult a health care professional or visit a travel health clinic before travelling to discuss your options. It is recommended to do this 6 weeks before travel, however, it is still a good idea any time before leaving. 
 
Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all times: 
• Cover your skin and use an approved insect repellent on uncovered skin. 
• Exclude mosquitoes from your living area with screening and/or closed, well-sealed doors and windows.
• Use insecticide-treated bed nets if mosquitoes cannot be excluded from your living area. 
• Wear permethrin-treated clothing. 
 
If you develop symptoms similar to malaria when you are travelling or up to a year after you return home, see a health care professional immediately. Tell them where you have been travelling or living. 

Rabies


In this destination, rabies is carried by dogs and some wildlife, including bats. Rabies is a deadly disease that spreads to humans primarily through bites or scratches from an infected animal. While travelling, take precautions, including keeping your distance from animals (including free-roaming dogs), and closely supervising children.

If you are bitten or scratched by an animal while travelling, immediately wash the wound with soap and clean water and see a health care professional. Rabies treatment is often available in this destination. 

Before travel, discuss rabies vaccination with a health care professional. It may be recommended for travellers who are at high risk of exposure (e.g., occupational risk such as veterinarians and wildlife workers, children, adventure travellers and spelunkers, and others in close contact with animals). 

Safe food and water precautions

Many illnesses can be caused by eating food or drinking beverages contaminated by bacteria, parasites, toxins, or viruses, or by swimming or bathing in contaminated water.

  • Learn more about food and water precautions to take to avoid getting sick by visiting our eat and drink safely abroad page. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
  • Avoid getting water into your eyes, mouth or nose when swimming or participating in activities in freshwater (streams, canals, lakes), particularly after flooding or heavy rain. Water may look clean but could still be polluted or contaminated.
  • Avoid inhaling or swallowing water while bathing, showering, or swimming in pools or hot tubs. 

Travellers' diarrhea

Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.

Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.

The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.

Typhoid

Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among children, travellers going to rural areas, travellers visiting friends and relatives or those travelling for a long period of time.

Travellers visiting regions with a risk of typhoid, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation, should speak to a health care professional about vaccination.  

Schistosomiasis

There is a risk of schistosomiasis in this destination. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by tiny worms (blood flukes) which can be found in freshwater (lakes, rivers, ponds, and wetlands). The worms can break the skin, and their eggs can cause stomach pain, diarrhea, flu-like symptoms, or urinary problems. Schistosomiasis mostly affects underdeveloped and rural communities, particularly agricultural and fishing communities.

Most travellers are at low risk. Travellers should avoid contact with untreated freshwater such as lakes, rivers, and ponds (e.g., swimming, bathing, wading, ingesting). There is no vaccine or medication available to prevent infection.

Insect bite prevention

Many diseases are spread by the bites of infected insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas or flies. When travelling to areas where infected insects may be present:

  • Use insect repellent (bug spray) on exposed skin
  • Cover up with light-coloured, loose clothes made of tightly woven materials such as nylon or polyester
  • Minimize exposure to insects
  • Use mosquito netting when sleeping outdoors or in buildings that are not fully enclosed

To learn more about how you can reduce your risk of infection and disease caused by bites, both at home and abroad, visit our insect bite prevention page.

Find out what types of insects are present where you’re travelling, when they’re most active, and the symptoms of the diseases they spread.

Chikungunya

There is a risk of chikungunya in this country.  The risk may vary between regions of a country.  Chikungunya is a virus spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Chikungunya can cause a viral disease that typically causes fever and pain in the joints. In some cases, the joint pain can be severe and last for months or years.

Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all times. There is no vaccine available for chikungunya.

Cutaneous and mucosal Leishmaniasis

Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis causes skin sores and ulcers. It is caused by a parasite spread through the bite of a female sandfly.

Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from sandfly bites, which typically occur after sunset in rural and forested areas and in some urban centres. There is no vaccine or medication to protect against leishmaniasis.

Visceral Leishmaniasis

Visceral leishmaniasis (or kala azar) affects the bone marrow and internal organs. It is caused by a parasite spread through the bite of a female sandfly. It can also be transmitted by blood transfusion or sharing contaminated needles. If left untreated it can cause death. Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from sandfly bites, which typically occur after sunset in rural and forested areas and in some urban centres. There is no vaccine or medication to protect against leishmaniasis.

Dengue
  • In this country, dengue is a risk to travellers. It is a viral disease spread to humans by mosquito bites.
  • Dengue can cause flu-like symptoms. In some cases, it can lead to severe dengue, which can be fatal.
  • The level of risk of dengue changes seasonally, and varies from year to year. The level of risk also varies between regions in a country and can depend on the elevation in the region.
  • Mosquitoes carrying dengue typically bite during the daytime, particularly around sunrise and sunset.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or medication that protects against dengue.
Zika virus

Zika virus is a risk in this country. 

Zika virus is primarily spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can also be sexually transmitted. Zika virus can cause serious birth defects.

During your trip:

  • Prevent mosquito bites at all times.
  • Use condoms correctly or avoid sexual contact, particularly if you are pregnant.

If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, you should discuss the potential risks of travelling to this destination with your health care provider. You may choose to avoid or postpone travel. 

For more information, see Zika virus: Pregnant or planning a pregnancy.

American trypanosomiasis

American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is a risk in this country. It is caused by a parasite spread by infected triatomine bugs. The infection can be inactive for decades, but humans can eventually develop complications causing disability and even death.

Risk is generally low for most travellers. Protect yourself from triatomine bugs, which are active at night, by using mosquito nets if staying in poorly-constructed housing. There is no vaccine available for Chagas disease.

Oropouche fever

Oropouche fever is a disease caused by the Oropouche virus, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected midge or mosquito. Symptoms of Oropouche fever are similar to dengue, and usually include fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, chills, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. In some cases, aseptic meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain) may occur.  

Most travellers are at low risk. Individuals travelling in the Amazon rainforest, or travelling to work in agriculture or forestry are at higher risk.

Protect yourself from midge and mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or medication that protects against Oropouche fever.

Animal precautions

Some infections, such as rabies and influenza, can be shared between humans and animals. Certain types of activities may increase your chance of contact with animals, such as travelling in rural or forested areas, camping, hiking, and visiting wet markets (places where live animals are slaughtered and sold) or caves.

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, livestock (pigs, cows), monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats, and to avoid eating undercooked wild game.

Closely supervise children, as they are more likely to come in contact with animals.

Person-to-person infections

Stay home if you’re sick and practise proper cough and sneeze etiquette, which includes coughing or sneezing into a tissue or the bend of your arm, not your hand. Reduce your risk of colds, the flu and other illnesses by:

  •  washing your hands often
  • avoiding or limiting the amount of time spent in closed spaces, crowded places, or at large-scale events (concerts, sporting events, rallies)
  • avoiding close physical contact with people who may be showing symptoms of illness 

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and mpox are spread through blood and bodily fluids; use condoms, practise safe sex, and limit your number of sexual partners. Check with your local public health authority pre-travel to determine your eligibility for mpox vaccine.  

Medical services and facilities

Good health care is only available in major cities. Quality of care varies greatly throughout the country.

Private hospitals and clinics located in cities are often better staffed and equipped than public or rural facilities.

Some medical facilities in the state of Rio de Janeiro have closed or are providing limited services, due to lack of funding for their operations. Private hospitals remain operational.

Certain medications may not be available.

Physicians and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment.

Medical evacuation can be very expensive and you may need it in case of serious illness or injury.

Make sure you get travel insurance that includes coverage for medical evacuation and hospital stays.

Travel health and safety

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

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Laws and culture

You must abide by local laws.

Learn about what you should do and how we can help if you are arrested or detained abroad.

Drugs

Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are severe.

Avoid areas of known drug trafficking. Travellers should not, under any circumstances, carry any items for strangers, especially baggage and parcels.

Drugs, alcohol and travel

Child sex tourism

Brazil is actively seeking to prevent child sex tourism. A number of tourists have been convicted of offences relating to the corruption of minors.

The legal age of consent in Brazil is 18. Prison sentences are severe.

Child Sex Tourism: It’s a Crime

Identification

You must carry photo identification, such as a passport or driver’s license. Keep a photocopy of your passport in a safe place, in case it’s lost or confiscated.

Not carrying identification can lead to problems and delays if stopped by police or in case of a medical emergency.

Dual citizenship

Dual citizenship is legally recognized in Brazil.

If you are a Canadian citizen, but also a citizen of Brazil, our ability to offer you consular services may be limited while you're there. You may also be subject to different entry/exit requirements.

Travellers with dual citizenship

International Child Abduction

The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is an international treaty. It can help parents with the return of children who have been removed to or retained in certain countries in violation of custody rights. The convention applies between Canada and Brazil.

If your child was wrongfully taken to, or is being held in Brazil, and if the applicable conditions are met, you may apply for the return of your child to the Brazilian court.

If you are in this situation:

  • act as quickly as you can
  • contact the Central Authority for your province or territory of residence for information on starting an application under The Hague Convention
  • consult a lawyer in Canada and in Brazil to explore all the legal options for the return of your child
  • report the situation to the nearest Canadian government office abroad or to the Vulnerable Children’s Consular Unit at Global Affairs Canada by calling the Emergency Watch and Response Centre

If your child was removed from a country other than Canada, consult a lawyer to determine if The Hague Convention applies.

Be aware that Canadian consular officials cannot interfere in private legal matters or in another country’s judicial affairs.

Useful links

Driving

The legal blood alcohol limit is 0.00% in Brazil. If the police suspect you of drinking and driving, they could confiscate your driver’s licence on the spot. If convicted, you can expect heavy fines and possible jail sentences.

You can drive in Brazil for up to 180 days with a valid Canadian driver’s licence. Obtain an official Portuguese translation of your Canadian driver’s licence to help when dealing with local authorities.

You should carry an international driving permit.

International Driving Permit

Money

The currency is the real (BRL).

Canadian bank cards may not work in ATMs. They should have a pin with a maximum of 4 digits to work in Brazil.

Canadian dollars are not generally accepted, except by some exchange bureaus, most likely at airports. Do not exchange money on the street.

Carry small bills, as change is often unavailable for small transactions.

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Natural disasters and climate

Flooding in southern Brazil

On May 1, 2024, heavy rains caused severe flooding in southern Brazil, particularly in the following states:

  • Parana
  • Rio Grande do Sul
  • Santa Catarina

Rio Grande do Sul is the worst affected, especially Porto Alegre, resulting in several casualties. The governor of Rio Grande do Sul has declared a state of calamity. There are reports of significant damage to buildings and infrastructure. Evacuation efforts are underway. More rain is expected in the region in the days to come.

The following essential services could face further disruptions:

  • emergency services
  • fuel supply
  • medical care
  • power distribution
  • telecommunications networks
  • transportation
  • water and food supply

If you're in an affected area:

  • shelter in a safe place and stay indoors
  • exercise caution
  • monitor local news and weather reports
  • follow the instructions of local authorities, including evacuation orders

If you are in Brazil, sign up for the Civil Defense SMS service to be notified of weather alerts in your region.

Useful links:

El Niño

The complex weather phenomenon called El Niño happens at irregular intervals of 2 to 7 years and can last 9 months to 2 years. El Niño generally generates droughts and heavy rainfalls, which could cause flooding, landslides, and mudslides, and could severely disrupt travel. Extreme droughts and heavy rains could limit access to food, drinking water, hygiene products, and medication. Severe weather could occur, such as:

  • Below-average rainfall and droughts in the north and northeast
  • Excessive rains in the south and southeast of the country
  • Above-average temperatures in all regions

Keep informed of regional weather forecasts before and during your travels, and plan accordingly. Ensure you have adequate insurance to cover the consequences of such events, including the disruption of travel plans. 

Learn about El Niño

Rainy seasons

The rainy seasons extend from:

  • January to July in the north
  • October to April in the south and southeast
  • April to July in the northeast

Flash floods can occur outside of the rainy season.

They can hamper overland travel, especially in rural areas. Roads may become impassable and bridges damaged. Travel conditions on mountain roads and on highways leading to beaches can be dangerous. Seasonal flooding can also reduce the provision of essential services. Power outages are frequent during the rainy season.

Avoid the affected areas, keep informed of regional weather forecasts and follow the instructions of local authorities.

Useful links

Landslides 

Landslides are becoming more common in Brazil and are the result of heavy rainfall. During heavy rainfall, landslides are more likely to occur.

What to do: During a landslide  

Dry season   

Brasilia and the interior of the country experiences extreme dry periods between June and September.  Humidity levels can drop below 10% and heat levels rise significantly.

Stay informed of regional weather forecasts and plan accordingly.

Drought

A severe drought is affecting the south east of Brazil.

The water supply in São Paulo, including to the city of São Paulo, has been significantly affected. Some areas of São Paulo are experiencing water shortages, and the water quality has diminished.

Use only bottled water for drinking and cooking.

Wildfires

Bush and forest fires are common between May to September, particularly in Brasilia.

The air quality in areas near active fires may deteriorate due to heavy smoke. In case of a major fire:

  • stay away from the affected area, particularly if you suffer from respiratory ailments
  • follow the instructions of local emergency services personnel
  • monitor local media for up-to-date information on the situation

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Need help?

Local services

Emergency services

In case of emergency, dial:

  • police (military): 190
  • medical assistance: 192
  • firefighters: 193

Tourist police

  • Rio de Janeiro: (21) 2332 2924 or 2334 6802
  • São Paulo: (11) 3120 4447 or 3151 4167
  • Salvador: (71) 3116-6817
  • Recife: (81) 3322-4867

Consular assistance

Brasilia - Embassy of Canada
Street AddressSES - Av. das Nações, Quadra 803, Lote 16, 70410-900 Brasília, DF, BrazilTelephone+55 61 3424 5400Fax+55 61 3424 5490Emailbrsla-cs@international.gc.caInternethttps://www.Canada.ca/Canada-And-BrazilFacebookCanada in BrazilTwitter@canadabrazilOther social mediaCanadá no Brasil
@CanadanoBrasil
@canadabra
Appointment Book your appointment online
Rio De Janeiro - Consulate General of Canada
Street AddressAv. Atlântica 1130, 13º andar, Copacabana, 22021-000 Rio de Janeiro - RJ, BrazilTelephone+55 21 3444 0300Fax+55 21 3444 0319Emailrio-cs@international.gc.caInternethttps://www.Canada.ca/Canada-And-BrazilFacebookCanada in BrazilTwitter@CanadaBrazilOther social mediaCanadá no Brasil
@CanadanoBrasil
@canadabra
Appointment Book your appointment online
São Paulo - Consulate General of Canada
Street AddressCentro Empresarial Nações Unidas - Torre Norte, Av. das Nações Unidas, 12901, 16º andar, 04578-000 São Paulo - SP, BrazilTelephone+55 11 5509 4321Emailspalo-cs@international.gc.caInternethttps://www.Canada.ca/Canada-And-BrazilFacebookCanada in BrazilTwitter@CanadaBrazilOther social mediaCanadá no Brasil
@CanadanoBrasil
@canadabra
Appointment Book your appointment online

For emergency consular assistance, call the Embassy of Canada to Brazil, in Brasilia, or the Consulate General of Canada in São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro and follow the instructions. At any time, you may also contact the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa.

You may call the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa toll-free at 0 800 891-6614.

Disclaimer

The decision to travel is your choice and you are responsible for your personal safety abroad. We take the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provide credible and timely information in our Travel Advice to enable you to make well-informed decisions regarding your travel abroad.

The content on this page is provided for information only. While we make every effort to give you correct information, it is provided on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. The Government of Canada does not assume responsibility and will not be liable for any damages in connection to the information provided.

If you need consular assistance while abroad, we will make every effort to help you. However, there may be constraints that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide services.

Learn more about consular services.

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