African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease spread by an infected tsetse fly. The disease is transmitted in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
American trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease, is a tropical parasitic disease spread by infected triatomine insects.
Avian influenza, commonly known as "bird flu," is a viral infection that spreads easily and quickly among birds and can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.
Chikungunya is a viral disease that typically causes fever along with an arthritis-like pain in the joints. It is spread to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Chikungunya occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is spread by drinking or eating contaminated water or food.
Ciguatera is a food-borne disease caused by eating tropical or sub-tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxin.
Dengue fever is the most common viral disease spread to humans by mosquitoes. It can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases, it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common viral illness that mainly affects infants and children. It is caused by a group of viruses called enteroviruses.
The hepatitis A virus attacks the liver and can cause mild to severe illness. Hepatitis A is common in developing countries and is generally associated with poor sanitation and poor hygiene.
Hepatitis B is caused by a virus that infects the liver. It is highly contagious and is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases affecting travellers.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness that leaves those infected with it vulnerable to serious infections and cancers.
Influenza (or flu) is a common respiratory illness that affects thousands of Canadians each year. Travellers are at risk in any country during the flu season.
Japanese encephalitis is a virus that causes swelling of the brain and possible long-term nerve and brain damage. It is spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito and can be prevented by a vaccine.
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sand flies. It occurs in tropical and subtropical areas.
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease spread through contact with water, soil or food contaminated by urine from infected animals, or by direct contact with infected animals. It occurs worldwide, but most commonly infects people in wet, tropical climates.
Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito.
Measles is a highly contagious disease and is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children worldwide.
Meningococcal disease is an infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. This bacterium can cause serious and sometimes fatal diseases including meningitis (infection of the brain lining) and meningococcal septicemia (infection of the blood). Meningococcal disease occurs worldwide with seasonal variations
Polio (poliomyelitis) is a contagious disease that can be prevented by vaccination. It is spread through contaminated food and water
Rabies is a viral infection that is transmitted to humans through close contact with the saliva of an infected animal. Worldwide, dog bites are responsible for most human cases of rabies.
There are many different sexually transmitted infections. Some are spread by skin-to-skin contact and others through semen, vaginal fluid, blood or other body fluids during sexual activity.
Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral disease that causes swelling of the brain, swelling of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord, and/or swelling of the spinal cord. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick.
Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness that affects travellers. It is easily spread from person to person or by eating food or drinking water contaminated with feces.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial disease. After breathing in the bacteria, 5% to 10% of people will become sick and develop active TB overtime and usually in the lungs.
Typhoid fever is an infection caused by a bacteria found in contaminated food or water. The disease is commonly associated with eating foods prepared in unsanitary conditions; and with eating uncooked foods or drinking untreated water in areas where sewage is not disposed of safely.
Yellow fever is caused by a virus that is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. It is always present in many tropical areas in South America and Africa.
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