Travel-related diseases


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African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease spread by an infected tsetse fly. The disease is transmitted in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)

American trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease, is a tropical parasitic disease spread by infected triatomine insects.

Avian influenza

Avian influenza, commonly known as "bird flu," is a viral infection that spreads easily and quickly among birds and can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.


Bedbugs can easily hide in luggage, clothing, and other personal items, so take a few precautions while travelling to keep them from coming home with you.


Chikungunya is a viral disease that typically causes fever and an arthritis-like pain in the joints. It is spread to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. 


Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is spread by drinking or eating contaminated water or food.


Ciguatera is a food-borne disease caused by eating tropical or sub-tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxin.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by a novel (new) coronavirus. Human coronaviruses are typically associated with mild illnesses, similar to the common cold. Symptoms may take up to 14 days to appear and may be more serious in some cases. Travellers are reminded to always take precautions to protect themselves from respiratory illnesses.


Dengue is the most common viral disease spread to humans by mosquitoes, causing severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases, it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.

Ebola disease

Ebola is a deadly disease that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals and is spread through direct contact with the blood, body fluids or tissues of infected person

Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A virus attacks the liver and can cause mild to severe illness. Hepatitis A is common in developing countries and is generally associated with poor sanitation and poor hygiene.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus that infects the liver. It is highly contagious and is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases affecting travellers.


HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness that leaves those infected with it vulnerable to serious infections and cancers.

Influenza (flu)

Influenza (or flu) is a common respiratory illness that affects thousands of Canadians each year. Travellers are at risk in any country during the flu season.

Japanese encephalitis

The Japanese encephalitis virus causes swelling of the brain and possible long-term nerve and brain damage. It is spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.


Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sand flies. It occurs in tropical and subtropical areas.


Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that commonly infects people in wet, tropical climates and is often spread through direct or indirect contact with infected animals.


Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito.

Marburg virus disease

Marburg is a deadly disease that causes haemorrhagic fever in humans. It can be spread through contact with animals, bodily fluids or contaminated medical equipment.


Measles is a highly contagious disease and is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children worldwide.

Meningococcal disease

Meningococcal disease is a bacterial infection that sometimes leads to fatal brain lining or blood infections. It is spread through saliva or secretions (fluids) from the nose and throat.

Nipah virus

Nipah virus infection is a disease that can cause severe illness or death in humans and animals. It is spread to humans through the body fluids of infected animals and humans.


Plague is a disease that is transmitted between animals and humans by the bite of infected fleas, direct contact with infected tissues or by inhalation of infected respiratory droplets.


Polio (poliomyelitis) is a contagious disease that can be prevented by vaccination. It is spread through contaminated food and water


Rabies is a viral infection that is transmitted to humans through close contact with the saliva of an infected animal. Worldwide, dog bites are responsible for most human cases of rabies.

Sexually transmitted infections

Sexually transmitted infections can be spread by skin-to-skin contact, through semen, vaginal fluid, blood or other body fluids during sexual activity.

Tick-borne encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral disease that causes swelling of the brain, the membrane around the brain and spinal cord, and/or the spinal cord. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick.

Travellers' diarrhea

Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness that affects travellers. It is easily spread from person to person or by eating food or drinking water contaminated with feces.


Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial disease. After breathing in the bacteria, 5% to 10% of people will become sick and develop active TB over time, usually in the lungs.

Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that is commonly associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food handling practices. 

Valley fever

Valley fever is an infection caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus that is found in the soil in the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America. 

Yellow fever

Yellow fever is caused by a virus that is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. It is always present in many tropical areas in South America and Africa.

Zika virus

Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms of infection can be similar to other mosquito-transmitted viruses such as dengue, and chikungunya.

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