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HAITI - Exercise a high degree of cautionThere is no nationwide advisory in effect for Haiti. However, you should exercise a high degree of caution due to high crime rates in various parts of the country and ongoing political tensions.
Regional Advisory for the neighbourhoods of Martissant, Carrefour, Bel Air and Cité Soleil, in the Port-au-Prince areaForeign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada advises against non-essential travel to the neighbourhoods of Martissant, Carrefour, Bel Air and Cité Soleil, in the Port-au-Prince area, as the security situation is particularly unstable and dangerous. Consult the Security tab for more information.
The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.
Neighbourhoods of Martissant, Carrefour, Bel Air and Cité Soleil, in the Port-au-Prince area (see Advisory)
These areas continue to be dangerous due to criminal activity and the local authorities' lack of capacity to ensure order. Personal safety and a police presence are not guaranteed. The police are unable to respond in a timely manner to calls for assistance in these areas, and it is strongly advised to avoid going out after nightfall.
It is imperative that Canadians travelling to these areas have suitable accompaniment. You must ensure that you are expected by family members, friends, colleagues, local business representatives or organizations able to meet you as soon as you arrive at the airport or border, and to guide you in your travels. The use of public transport of any kind is not recommended. As the security situation can change at any moment, check with the organizations, institutes or hosts that are taking care of you to receive the latest updates on the region to which you are travelling.
The security situation is hazardous and very unpredictable. Remain extremely vigilant wherever you are in the country. Criminal activity is especially evident in large centres such as downtown Port-au-Prince, where armed gangs continue to operate. Many gang leaders escaped from the national penitentiary during the January 2010 earthquake and are still at large. Others have fled the capital.
Although travel in the parts of the country less affected by the earthquake presents less of a risk, exercise extreme caution and do not travel after dark.
There have been several recent reports of violent incidents along Route Nationale 2 from Petit‑Goâve (Ouest Department) to Miragoane (Nippes Department). Criminal gangs have committed robberies by erecting roadblocks. If you have to travel through this area, remain extremely vigilant and follow the advice of local authorities.
There has recently been an increase in armed robberies targeting travellers, particularly foreigners of Haitian origin, arriving on international flights at the Toussaint Louverture International Airport in Port-au-Prince. In most cases, the victims’ vehicles are followed by criminals on motorcycles. Be extremely vigilant when leaving the airport.
Murder, kidnapping, armed robberies, burglaries and carjackings have been known to occur even in daylight hours. The general Haitian population, regardless of social class, can be considered at risk of being kidnapped. Although rare, there have been kidnappings involving Canadians and other foreign nationals, including missionaries, aid workers and children. Most victims have been released after a ransom was paid. In some exceptional cases, however, victims have disappeared or have been killed.
Never walk alone. Keep windows closed and doors locked when travelling by car. Avoid showing visible signs of affluence, such as expensive-looking jewellery or cameras. Remain cautious with new acquaintances offering friendship or hospitality. Foreigners, including Canadians, are viewed as wealthy. If confronted by thieves, do not resist.
Remain alert to small groups of loiterers, especially near your residence. Keep doors and windows secure at all times. Instruct domestic staff to permit only pre-authorized visitors whose identities have been verified into your home. Keep all visitors under close surveillance.
Avoid photographing individuals without first obtaining their approval. Be cautious when photographing scenes in poor or urban areas, where people may feel exploited or insulted by being subjects of such activities.
Demonstrations and unrest
Haiti periodically experiences social unrest, particularly during election periods.
Demonstrations are frequent, and protest marches and strikes may occur at any time in the capital, throughout the country and on main highways. Local transportation services may be disrupted. Avoid large crowds, as they can turn into violent demonstrations. Monitor the situation through local news broadcasts and stay inside during political gatherings and demonstrations. Be aware that curfews could be in effect.
Rioting and related violence can occur on little or no notice.
Already narrow and poorly maintained, roads were made worse by the January 2010 earthquake. Most vehicles are also in poor condition. Few traffic lights operate and those that do are limited to urban centres. Traffic signs are rare. Driving at night and in bad weather should be avoided, even in the city. Streets are rarely lit, and unlit vehicles are common. Vehicles are often abandoned on or beside the road. Many people drive while intoxicated and do not respect traffic rules.
Since there are periodic disruptions of fuel supplies, fuel tanks should always be kept at least half full.
Because of the lack of police and roadside assistance services, you should carry a mobile phone and a list of contact numbers in the event of an emergency. However, coverage for cellular telephones can be intermittent in some rural areas.
Avoid all public transportation, especially informal taxis (“tap-taps”) to and from the airport. Buses are mechanically unreliable and overcrowded.
Ferry accidents occur due to the overloading and poor maintenance of some vessels. Do not board vessels that appear overloaded or unseaworthy.
Consult our Transportation Safety page in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.
It is the sole prerogative of each country or region to determine who is allowed to enter. Canadian consular officials cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet entry requirements. The following information on entry and exit requirements has been obtained from the Haitian authorities. However, these requirements are subject to change at any time. It is your responsibility to check with the Embassy of the Republic of Haiti or one of its consulates for up-to-date information.
Official (special and diplomatic) passport holders must consult the Official Travel page, as they may be subject to different entry requirements.
A valid Canadian passport is required for Canadians intending to visit Haiti. Before you leave, ask your transportation company about its requirements related to passport validity, which may be more stringent than the country's entry rules.
All Canadians are required to have a valid Canadian passport to depart from Haiti. The Embassy of Canada in Port-au-Prince can issue a passport in an average of 15 working days. You will not be allowed to board a return flight to Canada with a non-Canadian passport and a Canadian Citizenship Card. Non-Canadians travelling to Canada must present a valid passport containing a Canadian visa.
Tourist Visa: Not applicable (for stays of less than 90 days)
Business Visa: Not applicable
Work permit: required
Residency permit ("permis de séjour"): required for stays of more than 90 days
Student Visa: Required
Haiti does not issue tourist visas for foreign visitors. However, it is essential that travellers contact the nearest Haitian diplomatic mission for clarification before travelling to Haiti, to ensure that visa requirements have not changed.
Visitors wishing to extend their stay beyond 90 days must apply to the Haitian Immigration Service before the 90 days have expired. Do not wait until the last minute. Canadians of non-Haitian origin, who have been in the country for more than 90 days, and who did not apply for an extension of stay, must obtain an exit visa from the Haitian Immigration Service before leaving the country.
We strongly recommend that Canadian investors, exporters/importers and workers register with the Embassy of Canada in Port-au-Prince and contact the trade section at email@example.com. They may also contact the Haitian-Canadian Chamber of Commerce and Industry for information and advice. For stays of more than six months, they must apply for a residency permit ("permis de séjour") through their employer with Haitian Immigration authorities. This document must be obtained before leaving Canada.
Individual Canadians or Canadian organizations wishing to donate clothing, new or used material goods, personal care products or medications should contact the Embassy of the Republic of Haiti or one of its consulates before sending goods to Haiti. Donations entering the country are subject to import rules and could be seized and taxed in accordance with local legislation.
Foreign visitors are not charged any entry fees, except for those entering from the Dominican Republic via a land border crossing. These visitors must pay a fee of US$10 (cash only).
Children and travel
Children need special documentation to visit certain countries. Please consult our Children page for more information.
Some countries require proof of yellow fever vaccination before allowing entry. Consult the World Health Organization’s country list to obtain information on this country’s requirements.
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- Measles: Global Update - January 28, 2014 19:56
Be sure that your routine vaccines are up-to-date regardless of your travel destination.
Vaccines to Consider
You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health provider about which ones are right for you.
Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver spread by contaminated food or water. All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated.
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids. Travellers who may be exposed (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment or occupational exposure) should get vaccinated.
Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics. Influenza (flu) is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or through personal contact with unwashed hands. Get the flu shot.
Measles occurs worldwide but is a common disease in developing countries, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. Measles is a highly contagious disease. Be sure your vaccination against measles is up-to-date regardless of the travel destination.
Rabies is a disease that attacks the central nervous system spread to humans through a bite, scratch or lick from a rabid animal. Vaccination should be considered for travellers going to areas where rabies exists and who have a high risk of exposure (i.e., close contact with animals, occupational risk, and children).
Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among travellers going to rural areas, visiting friends and relatives, or with weakened immune systems. Travellers visiting regions with typhoid risk, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should consider getting vaccinated.
Yellow Fever Vaccination
Yellow fever is a disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito.
Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.
|* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.|
|Country Entry Requirement*|
Food and Water-borne Diseases
Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.
In some areas in the Caribbean, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, schistosomiasis and typhoid. Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in the Caribbean. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
There have been cases of cholera reported in this country in the last year. Cholera is a bacterial disease that typically causes diarrhea. In severe cases it can lead to dehydration and even death.
Most travellers are generally at low risk. Humanitarian workers and those visiting areas with limited access to safe food and water are at higher risk. Practise safe food and water precautions. Travellers at high risk should get vaccinated.
- Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
- Risk of developing travellers’ diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.
- The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.
Insects and Illness
Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites.
- Dengue fever occurs in this country. Dengue fever is a viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms. In some cases it leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.
- Mosquitoes carrying dengue bite during the daytime. They breed in standing water and are often found in urban areas.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. There is no vaccine available for dengue fever.
- There is a risk of malaria throughout the year in the whole country.
- Malaria is a serious and occasionally fatal disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is no vaccine against malaria.
- Protect yourself from mosquito bites. This includes covering up, using insect repellent and staying in well-screened air-conditioned accommodations. You may also consider sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet or pre-treating travel gear with insecticides.
- See a health care provider or visit a travel health clinic, preferably six weeks before you travel to discuss the benefits of taking antimalarial medication and to determine which one to take.
Animals and Illness
Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats. Some infections found in some areas in the Caribbean, like rabies, can be shared between humans and animals.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks and impairs the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
Practise safe sex while travelling, and don’t share needles, razors, or other objects which could transmit infection.
Remember that HIV can also be spread through the use of unsterile medical equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture. Diseases can also be spread though blood transfusions and organ transplantation if the blood or organs are not screened for HIV or other blood-borne pathogens.
Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.
For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.
Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care provider.
High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.
Keep in Mind...
The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.
Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit, especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.
Laws & Culture
Laws & Culture
You are subject to local laws. Consult our Arrest and detention page for more information.
Possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs can result in lengthy legal proceedings, heavy jail sentences and fines. Canadians have been arrested for drug trafficking after they agreed to check in bags for new acquaintances.
A Haitian driver's permit, which is required for vehicle operators staying more than three months, may be obtained on presentation of a valid provincial driver's licence or an International Driving Permit (IDP). For stays under three months, an IDP is recommended.
Legal fees can be very high and judicial procedures are slow. Some Canadians have experienced a lengthy detention period (in some cases, over a year) before being sent to trial. Prison conditions in Haiti are extremely difficult. Penal facilities are overcrowded, unsanitary and under-resourced.
The currency is the gourde (HTG), but prices are often quoted in Haitian dollars (fixed rate of 5 gourdes to 1 Haitian dollar) or U.S. dollars.
Most leading hotels accept major credit cards. American and Canadian travellers’ cheques are rarely accepted, and Canadian currency is never accepted. Canadian bank cards may be used to access funds from some automated banking machines (ABMs), but the withdrawal limit is much lower than in Canada. Haitian ABMs have proved unreliable in the past and should not be depended upon in emergency situations. Be extremely vigilant when using ABMs in Haiti due to a high risk of robbery. It is advisable to deal directly with a teller.
Natural Disasters & Climate
Natural Disasters & Climate
On January 12, 2010, a strong earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck close to Port-au-Prince. The earthquake caused widespread loss of life and extensive damage to infrastructure. Power and telecommunications are still severely disrupted. Health services remain extremely limited.
The hurricane season extends from June to the end of November. The National Hurricane Center provides additional information on weather conditions. Stay informed of regional weather forecasts, and follow the advice and instructions of local authorities. Flooding and landslides have caused tremendous damage to many parts of the country in the past. Travel to affected areas can be severely restricted and could be hazardous.
Port-au-Prince - Embassy of Canada
For emergency assistance after hours, call the Embassy of Canada in Port-au-Prince and follow the instructions. Callers may occasionally experience difficulties reaching the Embassy by telephone or facsimile due to problems with local infrastructure. In such cases, Canadians can contact the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa at 613‑996‑8885 or via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.